
Course unit
GENERAL PHYSICS 1
SCN1032574, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Basic courses 
FIS/01 
Experimental Physics 
14.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
14.0 
112 
238.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Board 
From 
To 
Members of the board 
6 Commissione Fisica Generale 1 20192020 
01/10/2019 
30/11/2020 
TUROLLA
ROBERTO
(Presidente)
LIGUORI
MICHELE
(Membro Effettivo)
BUSETTO
GIOVANNI
(Supplente)

5 Commissione Fisica Generale 1 20182019 
01/10/2018 
30/11/2019 
TUROLLA
ROBERTO
(Presidente)
LIGUORI
MICHELE
(Membro Effettivo)
BUSETTO
GIOVANNI
(Supplente)

Prerequisites:

Calculus I. 
Target skills and knowledge:

The law of mechanics for a particle and a system of particles. Fluids at rest and the basics of hydrodynamics. Foundations of thermodynamics. 
Examination methods:

The final examination is both written and oral. The written part requires the solution of exercises on topics discussed in the program and it can be replaced by partial assessments during the course. The oral exam covers topics addressed in the lectures. 
Assessment criteria:

The written examination aims at assessing the student's ability in solving autonomously simple exercises about mechanics and thermodynamics, employing the techniques learned during lectures. Goal of the oral examination is to verify the student's knowledge about topics of General Physics. 
Course unit contents:

1) Introduction. What Is Physics? Measuring Things. The International System of Units: mass, length, time. Reference frames. Scalars and vectors, operations with vectors.
2) Kinematics. Motion of a particle along a straight line. Position and velocity. Average and instantaneous velocity. Uniform motion. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Motion with constant acceleration. Freefalling bodies. The harmonic oscillator. Motion in 2 and 3 dimensions. Position,velocity and acceleration. Circular motion. Projectile motion.
3) Dynamics of a particle. Force, inertial mass. Newton's three laws of motion. Momentum. Some particular forces: weight, normal force, friction, spring force, drag. Applying Newton's laws: inclined plane, particle falling in a liquid. Angular momentum and torque.
4) Work and energy. Work of a force. Kinetic energy and the workkinetic energy theorem, Conservative forces and potential energy. Potential energy for the weight and spring force. Energy conservation. Power.
5) Relative motions. Reference frames. Relative velocity and relative acceleration. Inertial frames. The terrestrial reference frame.
6) Systems of particles. Internal and external forces and their torques. Center of mass. Momentum of a systems of particles. Newton's second law for a system of particles. Angular momentum for a system of particles. Newton's second law for rotation. Conservation of momentum and angular momentum in a system of particles. Work and energy. First and second König's theorem. Systems of parallel forces, barycenter.
7) Dynamics of the rigid body. Rotation with a fixed axis: axial angular momentum, kinetic energy, work. Moment of inertia, determination of the moment of inertia for simple bodies. Steiner's theorem. Rolling without slipping. Conservation laws for rigid body motion. Static equilibrium.
8) Collisions. Collision between two point masses. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Conservation of momentum and energy. Collisions in 1 and 2 dimensions. Collisions between rigid bodies.
9) Gravitation. Central forces and their properties. Kepler's laws. Newton's law of gravitation. Gravitational potential energy. Escape velocity. The torsion balance, measuring the gravitational constant. Kepler's problem, trajectories and constants of the motion.
10) Hydrostatic equilibrium; Stevin's law. Archimedes' principle. Viscosity: ideal and real fluids. Fluid dynamics. Stationary flow. Continuity equation, Flow rate, Bernoulli's Theorem. Laminar flow. Poiseuille’s flow.
11) Thermodynamic quantities, thermodynamic transformations and equilibrium, equation of state, functions of state. Temperature scales and thermometers. Joule’s experiment and mechanical equivalent of heat. First Principle of Thermodynamics. Internal energy. Calorimetry.
12) Ideal gas and real gas. Boyle’s, GayLussac’s and Avogadro's Laws. Equation of state for an ideal gas. Gas thermometer. PV diagrams and thermodynamic transformations of an ideal gas. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Thermodynamic cycles and work. Specific heat. Mayer’s relation. Free expansion and internal energy for an ideal gas. Adiabatic transformations; TV, PV, PT relations for reversible adiabatic heating and cooling. Thermal efficiency. Carnot cycle. Phase transitions. Kinetic theory of gases.
13) Second Principle of Thermodynamics. Clausius and KelvinPlanck statements. Carnot’s theorem. Thermodynamic temperature. Clausius theorem. Entropy. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Classes for theory and worked out exercises. Laboratory demonstrations. Lectures are given in Italian. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Suggested textbook. Lecture notes and exercises are available on the web site of the teacher (https://www2.pd.infn.it/astro/pers/turolla/didattica/main.html). 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Mazzoldi, Paolo; Nigro, Massimo; Voci, Cesare, Elementi di fisica, meccanica, termodinamica. Napoli: EdiSES, 2008.

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