
Course unit
CONSTRUCTION DRAFTING
IN11102098, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Core courses 
ICAR/17 
Design 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
First semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Target skills and knowledge:

The aim of the course is to provide essential methodological knowledge for the representation of the architectural and engineering project for understanding space through the conceptual and operational tools of design.
Drawing is a written communication language. It responds to precise spelling and grammar rules, like the languages spoken, where each sign has its specific meaning and must be used properly. It is a universal language that allows exchanges of information and knowledge between professionals of all geographical and / or cultural backgrounds.
Nowadays, the practice of architectural and engineering design is supported by the use of electronic tools and software for design and planning in a digital environment.
Therefore, it is proposed to provide the Environmental Engineering students with the fundamental knowledge, both conceptual and practical, inherent to the drawing for design and communication, as correct and objective as possible possible, of the project and of the built one. 
Examination methods:

To access the exam, it is necessary to consign (by the dates that will be communicated by the professor) the drawings by hand and the digital ones developed during the course.
The test consists of a written exam consisting of three drafts (3 exercises) related to the topics covered during the semester. 
Assessment criteria:

The written exam is carried out for a total of 21 points (7 points for each year). To these will be added the evaluation of the graphic drawings developed during the semester (max 4 points) and of the digital drawing (max 5 points). 
Course unit contents:

A  GEOMETRY AND METHODS OF REPRESEMNTATION
1. Introduction to representation and geometrical methods of representation.
2. Elements of elementary geometry (definition of point, line, plane and space; definition of coplanar, incident, parallel, coincident, skew lines; definition of projection from a center of a point on a plane, of projection of a point on a plane according to an assigned direction, orthogonal projection of a point on a plane; definition the rotation of a plane; definition of a symmetrical figure with respect to a point, with respect to an axis).
3. Basics of projective geometry (definition of projection from a center and section with a plane; notion of projective space: extension of the Euclidean space to infinity,
definition of line and plane at infinity: parallel lines, parallel planes, beam of straight lines with a center P at infinity, star of straight lines with center P, beam of planes with axis p)
4. Orthogonal projections (Method of Monge): reference system in space and in the plane; representation of the point, of the line and of the plane and particular cases; belonging condition of point to line, line to plane, point to plane), parallelism and coplanarity conditions. The plane for the third projection. Intersections between planes, between straight lines, between line e plane. Rotation of projecting plane.
5. Orthogonal projections (Method of Monge): The section with projecting planes of simple solids (section of the parallelepiped, section of the pyramid, of the cone, section of the sphere) and complex solids.
6. Axonometry (parallel projections): introduction to axonometry; orthogonal and oblique axonometries: reference system in space and plane.
7. Axonometry (parallel projections): isometric orthogonal axonometry; the
monometric and dimetric oblique axonometry: cavalry, military and
planometric axonometries.
B  FUNDAMENTAL LEGISLATION FOR TECHNICAL DRAWING
1. Paper dimensions, folding paper and title blocks; scale reports; dimensions (measurement lines and reference system, dimensioning systems, conventions and dimension symbols); line types;
hatches (conventions of sections and hatches for the representation of the materials).
C  REPRESENTATION OF CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS
1. Building materials (stone materials, bricks, concrete).
2. The structures (foundation structures, the vertical masonry structures, the structures vertical and horizontal in concrete, the steel structures, the floors, the ceilings, stairwells and elevator).
D  PROJECT DRAWING
1. Plans and cadastral maps.
2. The plans (foundation plans, static scheme, distribution scheme, technological plans)
3. The vertical sections.
4. The elevations.
5. Construction details.
E  ARCHITECTURAL SURVEY
1. Metrology basics.
2. The survey methods (direct survey method).
3. Topography basics.
4. Digital photogrammetry basics. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

OBJECTIVES
The course deals with general topics on technical drawing. It is set to teach the students the main two methods of representation, useful for any kind of engineering subjects: orthogonal projections and axonometric views. It focuses on technical drawings, providing theoretical and practical skills for the analysis and the representation of pure geometric objects.
The course provides also the base of digital skills for 2D and 3D representation.
OBJECTIVES
The course deals with general topics on technical drawing. It is set to teach the students the main two methods of representation, useful for any kind of engineering subjects: orthogonal projections and axonometric views. It focuses on technical drawings, providing theoretical and practical skills for the analysis and the representation of pure geometric objects.
The course provides also the base of digital skills for 2D and 3D representation.
OUTCOMES
The students will be able to manage the basic rules of projective geometry and descriptive geometry to represent engineering / architectural structures and portions of territory at different scales. At the end of the course the students will be able to face:
1) the geometric problems of the space with orthogonal and axonometric projections (section/intersections/revolutionary solids/noteworthy surfaces).
2) the appropriate digital commands for the creation of 2D and 3D digital drawings. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

for hand drawing:
A3 paper, rulers, 4H and 2H pencils, white eraser, compass
for digital drawing:
Autocad, Civil 3D, Rhinoceros. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Cundari, Cesare, <<Il >>rilievo architettonicoragioni, fondamenti, applicazioniCesare Cundari. Roma: Aracne, 2012.

Sgrosso, Anna, <<La >>rappresentazione geometrica dell'architetturaapplicazioni di geometria descrittivaAnna Sgrosso. Torino: UTET libreria, 1996.

D'Acunto, Giuseppe; Giordano, Andrea, Descrivere lo spaziodalla genesi geometrica alla rappresentazione delle superficiGiuseppe D'Acunto, Andrea Giordano. Padova: Progetto, 2018.

Migliari, Riccardo, Geometria descrittivaRiccardo Migliari. Milano: Novara, CittàStudi, 2009.

Docci, Mario; Maestri, Diego, Manuale di rilevamento architettonico e urbanoMario Docci, Diego Maestri. Roma [etc.]: Laterza, 2009.

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Lecturing
 Laboratory
 Problem based learning
 Case study
 Interactive lecturing
 Working in group
 Use of online videos
 Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)
 Portfolio
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
 Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

