
Course unit
ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS
SCP7081703, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/01 
Experimental Physics 
2.0 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/02 
Theoretical Physics, Mathematical Models and Methods 
2.0 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/05 
Astronomy and Astrophysics 
2.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Prerequisites:

Taking for granted the notions of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity provided in previous undergraduate courses, the present course is selfconsistent in so far as it intends to provide the necessary basic notions of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and elementary particle physics, and cosmology. 
Target skills and knowledge:

The course aims at providing a deep and critical comprehension of the early Universe (from the Big Bang to the few minutes after it). In doing so it will provide a vast knowledge of areas encompassing cosmology, astrophysics and elementary particle physics. Indeed, the main goal of this course is to make the student able to appreciate how the synergy between the above mentioned research areas may lead to relevant results in our search for new physics beyond the Standard Models of cosmology and particle physics. 
Examination methods:

Oral examination. 
Assessment criteria:

The evaluation of the final colloquium is based on the degree of comprehension of the various topics discussed in the course and on the ability of the student to organize and present them in a coherent and logical way. 
Course unit contents:

i) Introduction: the observable Universe and its expansion, dark matter, Big Bang relics;
2) Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: KleinGordon equation; Dirac equation; particles and antiparticles; discrete symmetries: P, T, C and CPT theorem;
3) Quantum Field Theory: KleinGordon and Dirac quantum fields; quantum electrodynamics (QED); elements of the scattering theory: S matrix, propagators, Feynman rules, cross sections and decay rates
4) Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB): SSB of discrete and continuous symmetries; Goldstone theorem; SSB of local (gauge) symmetries; Higgs mechanism; Higgs; finite temperature SSB.
5) The Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physcs: Fermi theory; VA theory; YangMills theories; electroweak standard theory; SSB of the electroweak symmetry; CP violation; baryon and lepton numebr conservation; Higgs boson searches and discovery.
6) Neutrino Physics: Dirac and Majorana masses; seesaw mechanism; neutrino oscillations; solar and atmospheric neutrinos; Supernovae neutrinos;
7)Beyond the SM: Grand Unified Theories (GUTs); SSB and the gauge hierarchy problem; proton decay.
8) Elements of General Relativity: equivalence principle; curved spacetime; energymomentum tensor; Einstein equations, Schwarzschild solutions
9) Cosmological Models: De Sitter model; Standard cosmological model; FLRW metrics and Friedmann equations; the cosmological constant
10) Thermodynamics of the Early Universe:thermodynamical equilibrium; entropy; decoupling temperature.
11) Dark Matter (DM): observational evidence; Boltzmann equations; cold and hot DM; Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs); particle physics DM candidates; cosmological limits of the neutrino masses; direct and indirect DM searches.
12) Inflation: the problems of the horizon, flatness and lifetime of the Universe; the problem of the cosmological monopoles; inflation mechanism; quantum fluctuations of the inflaton; inflation models; dark energy
13) Baryogenesis and the cosmic matterantimatter asymmetry: Sacharov conditions; baryon and lepton violating interactions; matterantimatter asymmetry and neutrino masses: leptogenesis. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Class lectures 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Notes on all the topics covered in the course will be provided to the students. A more detailed programme of the course will be provided during classes. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Kolb, Edward; Turner, Michael, Early Universe. New York:: Westview Press, 1994.

Perkins, Donald H, Particle astrophysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press,, 2009.

Bergstrom, Lars; Goobar, Ariel,, Cosmology and particle astrophysics. Berlin:: Springer, 2003.

Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Rubakov, Valery, Introduction to the theory of the early universehot big bang theory. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company,, 2011.


