
Course unit
APPLIED ELECTRONICS
SCP7081701, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/01 
Experimental Physics 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Prerequisites:

 Basic solidstate physics on semiconductors (crystal lattice, Fermi distribution, levels energy distribution, etc.)
 Analogue electronics (linear networks, active and passive devices, amplifiers, operational amplifiers, filters, etc.)
 Standard programming languages (syntax, structure, use of libraries, etc.)
 Basic knowledge of computational software (e.g. Mathematica, Matlab) 
Target skills and knowledge:

The successful participant will learn how/to:
 An integrated circuit is designed and produced.
 Design a logic circuit through HDL description.
 Realize a logic function/algorithm and run it in a FPGA.
 Perform an actual task using FPGA hardware.
 Render a FPGA design tolerant to a radiation environment. 
Examination methods:

Oral exam 
Assessment criteria:

The criteria for the evaluation of the oral test take into account the correctness of contents, arguing clarity and critical analysis 
Course unit contents:

 Basic knowledge of device physics, diode and transistor, either BJT or MOS.
 Principle of working of the diode and the transistor (BJT and MOS). Ssimplified physical model of the MOS (implants, gate, oxide) and how this influences its performances (parasitic capacitance, power consumption, etc.)
 Basic circuits using diodes and transistor for specific purposes (rectifier, voltage pump, etc...).
 MOS transistor dynamic behavior, linear region, inversion region, saturation region, power consumption, speed, parasitics, etc.   Basic microelectronics manufacturing concepts (lithography, feature size, etc...).
 Basic logic gates (NOT, AND, NAND, ...) and their realization with CMOS transistors. More complex basic logic blocks like the adder, the multiplexer and the parity checker. Timing and power considerations in the realization of the basic gates. Boolean algebra basics (DeMorganâ€™s theorems) and its applications to basic gates combinations.
 Memory elements building blocks: monostable, bistable, SR flipflop, JK flipflop, D flipflop and their properties. Look Up Tables and their usage for representing arbitrary functions. Actual memories type and use in computer and other logic: ROM, RAM, FLASH, EPROM, basic characteristics, behavior and device realization.
 Digital microelectronics basics: analog computers, noise margin, integration processes, microprocessors, Moore's law, the limit of scaling, analog/digital signal interface. Different level of design (system, behavioural, RTL, gates, transistor, device, ...) and the associate languages/tools..
 HDL languages and simulation tools of the trade: SPICE, what it is and how it works, ideal elements vs. real elements, MOS transistor basic model, example of IV curves for a MOS, response of an inverter and an operational amplifier. Verilog language scope and basics, concept of synthesis and simulation code, modules encapsulation, timebase definitions, some elementary syntax and constructs (especially the synchronous blocks like always, etc..).
 Synchronous systems: how to deal with large system by using a common timebase. The clock properties (frequency, jitter) and implications. Usage of memory elements to build a complete synchronous system. Finite State Machines types, principle of operation, and building elements. FSM analytical description and basic coding in Verilog.
 Implementation of simple synchronous circuits in FPGA through Verilog description. Definition of inputs, outputs, clock, and reset. Usage of device primitive for highfrequency clock domains. Usage of registers and counters. Implementation of simple state machines, connection of modules in a hierarchical structure. Simple IO interfaces (buttons, LEDs). Concept of synchronous communication over a single data line.
 Complex systems behavior and modelling, with special focus on radiation tolerance/resistance and mitigation techniques and topologies. Failure rate estimation through Markov Chains, protection schemes and their effectiveness, practical implementation. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

 Frontal lectures
 Interactive simulation of device/circuits with PSpice simulator.
 Interactive lessons with HDL synthesis and simulation of the circuits under discussion.
 System behavior modelling with Mathematica notebooks.
 Implementation of firmware in FPGA development boards. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

 Slides shown during the lectures (see related Moodle page)
 PSPice code for analogue simulations
 Verilog code for digital simulations
 Mathematica notebooks for system failure modeling 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

A. Laicata, Circuiti elettronici. : , .

T.H.Wilmshurst, Analog Cirtuit Techniques. : , .

W.Kleitz, Digital Electronics  A Practical Approach with VHDL. : , .

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Lecturing
 Case study
 Problem solving
 Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)
 Interactive programming
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
 Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)
 Mathematica
 PSpice and Verilog

