
Course unit
PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY OF SEMICONDUCTORS
SCP9087650, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Core courses 
FIS/03 
Material Physics 
8.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
First semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Practice 
2.0 
24 
26.0 
No turn 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Prerequisites:

Mathematical prerequisites:
Continuous functions. Derivatives. Fundamental theorems of differential calculus. Relative and absolute maxima and minima. Exponential and logarithmic trigonometric functions. Study of a function. Definite integrals. Solid volumes of rotation. Taylor and Maclaurin series. Complex numbers. Exponential in the complex field. Differential equations. Linear differential equations of first order and second order. Functions of multiple variables. Limitations. Partial derivatives. Maximum and minimum relative. Saddle points. Double integrals in polar coordinates. Solid volumes. Triple integral. Vector differential calculus: flow of a vector field across a surface. Divergence of a field and divergence theorem.
Basic Physics Prerequisites
Coulomb's law. Electrostatic field. Electrostatic potential. Gauss's law. Poisson and Laplace equations. Capacity; ideal capacitor. Dielectric constant. Electrical currents and current density. Conservation of the charge. Ohm's law. Joule effect. Magnetic field; Lorentz force.
Quantum Physics Prerequisites :
Light quanta and photoelectric effect. Wave packs. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Shroedinger equation particle in a box. Quantum harmonic oscillator. Expectation values. Observables and operators. Quantum uncertainty and properties of eigenvalues. Square barrier tunnel effect. Penetration of the barrier. Particle in a threedimensional box. Hydrogen atom and hydrogen atoms: fundamental state and excited states. Periodic table. MaxwellBoltzmann distribution and density of states. Energy provision. Quantum statistics: BoseEinstein and FermiDirac distributions
Solid state physics Prerequisites
The crystalline structure of solids: the direct lattice and the reciprocal lattice. Phonons. The electrical conductivity of metals in the Drude model. Bloch's theorem. 
Target skills and knowledge:

Knowledge: physical principles underlying the behavior of semiconductor materials. The goal of the course is to provide the basic concepts that enable the student to understand the working principle of a simple semiconductor device. At the beginning the students are introduced to the physical principles, then the main devices and some manufacturing processes will be described.
At the end of the course the student should have the ability to predict the band bending of a simple system that contains metals, insulators and doped semiconductors and to understand the explanation of how such a structure behaves in the presence of external forces (fields, lighting. ...). 
Examination methods:

Oral exam. During the semester it will be possible to give a midterm oral exam about the first part of the course concenrning on physical principle; at the end a second oral exam on the devices and processes will complete the final grade. 
Assessment criteria:

The following item will be evaluated:
the ability to expose one or more of the basic theories that explain the physical behavior of semiconductors.
 Understanding of the principle of operation of one or more semiconductor devices explained in the course.
 The ability to understand the band structure and the electrical behavior of a simple structure containing doped semiconductors, metals and insulators. 
Course unit contents:

Review of the crystal structure of the main semiconductors. Elementary semiconductors , compounds and alloys.
Review of solid state basic concepts ( Bloch theorem , effective mass , concept of hole ) .
Origin and specificity of semiconductors band structure. The real bands (examples: GaAs , Si, Ge, AlGaAs ) .
The envelope function method for the calculation of quantum states generated by aperiodic potential.
The mechanism of doping. The carriers in a homogeneous semiconductor as a function of doping and temperature ( semic. nondegenerate, intrinsic, ionized , partially ionized , in saturation). The compensation by deep level.
The semiconductor nonhomogeneous equilibrium. The case of the pn junction .
Charge transport in semiconductors. Drift diffusion equation. Intraband scattering phenomena and mobility in a semiconductor.
The mechanisms of generation and recombination in a semiconductor.
The equation of continuity. The case of the pn junction under polarization.
The heterojunction joints metal / semiconductor , metal / oxide / semiconductor.
The quantum confinement in semiconductor quantum well , quantum wire , quantum dot .
LEDs , GaN based LED, photodetectors. Solid state laser architectures, quantum confinement effect on lasering. Photovoltaic cells. Different architectures and materials for photovoltaics. Efficiency. Mechanisms of loss of efficiency . Thinfilm cells.
Produttive.Transistor bipolar and FET technologies . MOS structure.
Doping techniques. Ion implantation. Diffusion and defect .
Insulation, thermal oxidation.
Moore's Law and scaling. Issues and new materials. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Frontal lesson with basic theories and operating principles of the devices. Examples allowing to apply the theories and quantifying the orders of magnitude of the physical parameters involved. Mention to laboratory activities carried out simultaneously during the "physical methods of material characterization" course and their connection with theory. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Lectures slides will be provided 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Sapoval, Physics of semiconductors. : Springer Verlag, .

Singh, Electronic and Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Structures. : Cambridge, .

Sze, Simon Min, Semiconductor devicesphysics and technologyS. M. Sze. New York: J. Wiley & sons, .

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Problem based learning
 Case study
 Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
 Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

