
Course unit
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS
SCO2045507, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Core courses 
CHIM/02 
Physical Chemistry 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
First semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Examination board not defined
Prerequisites:

Coulomb's law. Field and electrostatic potential. Gauss's law. Poisson and Laplace equations. Electric dipole. Dipole approximation for a charge system.
Properties of conductors in equilibrium. Electrostatic screen. Capacity; ideal condenser. Energy of a system of charges. Electrostatic field energy. Dielectrics. Dielectric constant. Polarization. Polarization loads. Electrical currents and current density. Conservation of the charge. Ohm's law. Joule effect. Magnetic field; Lorentz force. Electromotive force. Motion of a charge in a magnetic field. Forces between currents. Moment of magnetic dipole. Electromagnetic induction and Faraday law. Variable magnetic fields and nonconservative forces.
Maxwell equations. Density and energy flow of the electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic waves. Wave equation. Geometric optics. Birefringence and optical activity. Interference and diffraction phenomena. Ideal crystal: concept of threedimensional periodic ordering. Concept of lattice, crystallographic cell. Elements of crystallographic symmetry. 32 groups of punctual symmetry. Neumann's principle. 230 space groups. Diffraction physics. Transformed and antiterformed by Fourier. Bragg's law. Radiation of black body. Planck's law. Photoelectric effect. The atomic model of Bohr. Principle of correspondence and quantization of angular momentum. Group speed and wave dispersion. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Waveparticle duality: doubleslit diffraction experiment. Born probabilistic interpretation of the wave function. Wave function for free particle. Shroedinger equation. Quantum harmonic oscillator. Observables and operators. Quantization of energy and angular momentum. Spinorbit interaction. Pauli exclusion principle. Distributions of BoseEinstein and FermiDirac. BornOppenheimer approximation. Theory of molecular orbital. Molecular quantummechanical calculations of medium field. HartreeFock approach. Semiempirical and abinte calculations. Configuration interaction. Functional density theory. Molecular symmetry. Elements and operations of punctual symmetry. The groups of punctual symmetry and the classification of the symmetry of the molecules. Spectroscopy. Perturbation theory independent of time and time dependent. Interaction with electromagnetic radiation and transition dipole moments. Absorption, emission and scattering. Intensity of absorptions and their relationship with the transition dipole moment. Einstein coefficients. Selection rules for transitions. Electronic spectroscopy. Vibrational structure and factors of Frank Condon. Electronic spectra of polyatomic molecules. Fluorescence and phosphorescence. Principles of action of lasers. Magnetic spectroscopy. The effect of magnetic fields on electronic and nuclear spins. Introduction to thermodynamic statistics. Distribution of Boltzman. The molecular partition function. Internal energy and molecular entropy. Wave diffraction by a crystal. The classical theory of harmonic crystal; specific heat at high temperatures: the DulongPetit law; the normal modes of a linear monoatomic and diatomic chain; elementary quantum theory of the harmonic crystal: phonons; the distribution of phonons with thermal equilibrium; the concept of state density. The electron gas: the Fermi sphere. The electrical conductivity of metals in the Drude model; the thermal conductivity of metals; electronelectron interaction: screen effects and Pauli principle; dielectric function. 
Target skills and knowledge:

The course aims at providing a rational description of the correlations among structural and microscopic properties of materials, on one hand, and their macroscopic properties (dielectric, optical, magnetic,etc.) on the other hand.
At the end of the course, the student will have acquired skills regarding the tensor nature of the physical properties of the crystals, the dielectric and optical properties of the insulators, the magnetism (dia, para, iron, irons and antiferro magnetism), the optical properties of metals and semiconductors, intermolecular forces, photophysics and molecular photochemistry, nonradiative energy transfer processes, intra and intermolecular electronic, and molecular electronics elements. 
Examination methods:

The exam consists of an oral interview that will focus on all the topics covered in class.
We will ask to expose the arguments both in a conceptual way and using mathematical demonstrations and schemes reproduced by the student on the blackboard. Typically, the exam will focus on two topics selected among those treated in class, and you can start from them to make links to other topics.
In case a higher level of knowledge is required of the knowledge acquired by the student, the number of topics covered in the exam will increase. 
Assessment criteria:

The student should show an acquired understanding of general principles and an ability to apply them for the description of specific material properties and phenomena. Coherent with the interdisciplinary nature of the master degree in Materials Science, he should, to some degree, show the ability to cross boundaries between physics and chemistry and recognize common grounds as well as fictitious or purely semantic differences. 
Course unit contents:

 Tensorial nature of physical properties of crystals.
 Dielectric and optical properties of insulators.
 Phase transitions. Landau theory.
 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism.
 Ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism.
 Optical properties of metals and semiconductors.
 Lindhard dielectric function.
 Dielectric screening in metals.
 Dielectric constant of semiconductors.
 Intraband transitions and plasma optics.
 Interband transitions and joint density of states.
 Wannier excitons.
 Electronphonon interactions. Polarons. Peierls transitions.
 Intermolecular forces.
 Nature and classification of int. forces. Perturbative treatment.
 Molecular recognition and self assembly.
 Molecular photophysics and photochemistry.
 Photophysics and photochemistry of aggregate systems. Frenkel excitons.
 Non radiative processes. Energy transfer.
 Intra and intermolecular electron transfer.
 Elements of molecular electronics. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

The main teaching activities will be delivered as classes. The active participation of students will be fostered and sufficient time will be allotted for questions and answers. Quiz, videos and real samples of materials will be used to this purpose.
From time to time, reference will be made to hot topics in materials science and applied research in order to keep alive the interest of students. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

A collection of slides will be available to the students for downloading from the teacher website.
Detailed lesson notes will be available at teacher's home page.
A detailed list of textbooks will be provided by the teacher to the students interested at indepth study. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Gert Strobl, Condensed Matter Physics: Crystals, Liquids, Liquid Crystals, and Polymers. Berlin: SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 2004. Espande la formazione in fisica dello stato solido a includere altri fasi condensate quali polimeri ecc.

Jacob Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, second or later edition. London: Academic Press, 1991. Interazioni intermolecolari, colloidi e autoassemblaggio

J.F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals. : Oxford University Press, 1964. Relazioni tra simmetrie strutturali e proprietà fisiche

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Lecturing
 Questioning
 Auto correcting quizzes or tests for periodic feedback or exams
 Active quizzes for Concept Verification Tests and class discussions
 Use of online videos
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

