First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Engineering
Course unit
INP9087767, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20

Information on the course unit
Degree course Second cycle degree in
IN1825, Degree course structure A.Y. 2010/11, A.Y. 2019/20
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Degree course track SOIL, WATER AND ENVIRONMENT [001PD]
Number of ECTS credits allocated 6.0
Type of assessment Mark
Department of reference Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance No
Language of instruction English
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge LUCA MARTINELLI ICAR/02
Other lecturers GIANLUCA BOTTER ICAR/02

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses ICAR/02 Maritime Hydraulic Construction and Hydrology 6.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 1st Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Lecture 6.0 48 102.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2010 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
1 2019 01/10/2019 30/11/2020 MARTINELLI LUCA (Presidente)
RUOL PIERO (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: none
Target skills and knowledge: The student will be able to evaluate the potentialities and the impacts of hydropower and marine renewables.
He will learn some general design guidelines and is expected to achieve sufficient competence to work in this sector.
Hands-on exercises in Matlab (– no prerequisite needed) will allow a thorough understanding of the main basic concepts.
During the course, the students will be allowed to test a simple device in the wave flume of the Maritime Laboratory of ICEA Department (
Examination methods: Oral exam, with questions addressing the homework and the contents of the course.
Assessment criteria: Good answers should be:
-to the point
-well structured
Course unit contents: There is a global need for developing energy technologies with a low carbon footprint. In this context, renewable energies derived from water (e.g. rivers and seas) could make a significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as supporting high-technology industry. Hydropower includes big plants relying on dams/reservoirs, and small scale run-of-river hydropower. The latter, in particular, has experienced a significant global-scale growth thanks to policy actions and incentives. Marine renewable energy, instead, includes offshore wind, wave, tidal-range (lagoons and barrages), and tidal-stream (current) energy. Marine renewable energy represents an important alternative in lowlands and coastal environments - where hydropower has limited potential.

The course includes the following topics:

1. Introduction (2h):
Motivations and objectives. Description of the course. Exam.
Introduction: hydropower and marine renewable energy resources. History, state of the art and potentialities.

PART A: Prof. Gianluca Botter

2. Hydropower as a renewable energy and hydropower plants (4h):
statistics, incentives, perspectives - at the global, European and Italian scales; electrical power; turbines; efficiencies; type of plants (classification).

3. Dam operations for hydropower production & hydrologic/ecologic impacts of river regulation (4h):
hydroelectricty and flow regimes; dam operation; optimization of energy production with and without bonds; natural flow regime; indexes of hydrological alterations; from minimum flows to e-flows; impacts of hydropower dams.

4. Run of river hydropower (10h):
definition/classificaiton of mini-hydro; capacity optimization; economic evaluation of a plant; authorisation process; managment issues; homework (simulation and optimization of a run-of-river plant with an exectuable file).

5. Trading between economy and hydrologic impact in runof river technology (2h):
Multi-objective optimization; Pareto fronts; trade-offs between ecological and societal needs.

PART B: Prof. Luca Martinelli

6. The wave kinematics and the wave energy (6 h):
Linear wave theory.
Wave kinematics, standing and progressive waves.
Wave energy, wave power.
Irregular nature of the waves, Rayleigh distribution, definition of significant wave.
Wave transformation processes (shoaling, refraction, diffraction, breaking, runup).
Wave climate concept and methods to evaluate the wave energy potential.

7. Wave Energy Converters (4h):
Operation principles, Classification.
Description of the existing structures.
Acoustic and other impacts.
Hand on exercise: design and construction of a simple Wave Energy Converter (in group). Concept will be tested in the maritime laboratory (wave flume).

8. Tidal dynamics (4h):
Description of the dynamics of the atmosphere and of the oceans and main drivers for coastal flooding.
Astronomical tide: physics. The Equilibrium Theory of Tides. The Lagrangian Tidal Equations.
Astronomical tide: prediction of elevation and currents based on tidal constants.

9. Tidal Energy Converters (2h):
Operation principles, Classification.
Existing structures.

10. Exercises in Matlab (6h):
- Introduction, installation and basic operations;
- Evaluate incident wave energy based on the wave climate;
- Predict incident tidal energy based on tidal constants.

11. Exercise in Maritime Laboratory (2h):
Each group will have the opportunity to test a WEC model in the maritime laboratory. The group will generate a few target incident waves and evaluate device efficiency.

Technical visit to a run-of-river hydropower plant in Veneto (1 day).
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The course will be given by Prof. Gianluca Botter and Prof. Luca Martinelli through:
-Frontal lessons
-Case studies will be discussed in class
-Laboratory tests
-Technical visit
Additional notes about suggested reading: Slides will be uploaded in moodle.
Other written material will be directly given in class.
A text book for reference of the marine renewable energy is listed below (open access if downloaded through the University wi-fi)
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Deborah Greaves, Gregorio Iglesias, Wave and Tidal Energy. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2018.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Affordable and Clean Energy Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure Sustainable Cities and Communities Responsible Consumption and Production Climate Action