
Course unit
ENERGY SYSTEMS
IN02120307, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2019/20
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Core courses 
INGIND/08 
Fluid Machines 
5.0 
Core courses 
INGIND/09 
Energy and Environmental Systems 
4.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
First semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
9.0 
72 
153.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Board 
From 
To 
Members of the board 
12 A.A. 2019/2020 
01/10/2019 
30/11/2020 
LAZZARETTO
ANDREA
(Presidente)
RECH
SERGIO
(Membro Effettivo)
MANENTE
GIOVANNI
(Supplente)

11 A.A. 2018/19 
01/10/2018 
30/11/2019 
LAZZARETTO
ANDREA
(Presidente)
RECH
SERGIO
(Membro Effettivo)
MANENTE
GIOVANNI
(Supplente)

Prerequisites:

Students who want to attend the course must:
 know the basics of thermodynamics of nonreactive and reactive fluids, fluid mechanics and machines and
 have competence on machinery and power plants technologies that they learned in courses at the Bachelor Degree.
In addition, students must possess knowledge of mathematical analysis and numerical calculation in order to face the modeling and optimization problems related to the behavior of the energy systems. 
Target skills and knowledge:

Achieve basic concepts, criteria and techniques for modeling and optimizing the design and operation of energy conversion and recovery systems. 
Examination methods:

The exam consists in a written test about some questions related to topics and methodologies considered during the course. The time available for the written test varies between two and three hours depending on the type of questions.
In order to participate to the exam students are asked to deliver a report including all the exercises performed during the course.
One of the questions is always about the application of MatlabSimulink modeling criteria that were taught in the computing laboratory lectures. The student is asked to build the block diagram of an energy system/component.
In more detail the answer must include:
• A discussion on how mass and energy streams are modeled (which variables are considered to describe mass and energy streams and how these variables are organized in the Simulink signals);
• The choice, and a discussion on the choice, of the independent and dependent variables of the model;
• Model equations, and a discussion on what they represent (e.g., mass balance, energy balance, system component efficiency, etc.). All equations should be in explicit form as required by Simulink (i.e. in the form of a dependent variable versus all the other variables)
• A block diagram of the model that has to be sufficiently detailed to explain the usefulness of each block (e.g., Function block: it calculates the output variable “f(u)” versus a single input array including the generic variable “u”. This array “u” is built using a Mux block placed upstream the Function block. In the Mux block all signals containing the required variables are sorted; the order used in the construction of the array “u” is fundamental to include in the menu of the Function block the proper “f(u)” formula. The latter has to be included in the text);
• A clear and concise explanation of control criteria, or other criteria presented during the course to solve/modify system models;
• Other specific requested explanations (e.g., model modifications when the choice of the independent variables is changed)
The above requirements stricly correspond to all actions presented during the lectures in the computing laboratory about the construction of the energy systems models.
To prepare the exam we suggest students to write summaries of each macrotopic presented during the course. 
Assessment criteria:

The evaluation criteria take into account:
 Student's ability to answer questions according to the instructions presented in "Modalità d'esame" (Examination procedure);
 Quality and completeness of the reports about the exercises performed during the course. 
Course unit contents:

Introduction to energy conversion systems for the supply of energy to industrial or domestic users.
Introduction to energy systems modelling. Features of design and offdesign energy systems models: number and type of equations and variables, aggregation level of the components. Simultaneous and sequentialmodular approaches to modelling.
Zerodimensional design and offdesign model of the main energy system components: compressors, turbines, heat exchangers. Basics of combustion and combustors model. Experimental test to evaluate the characteristic curve of a system component (fan).
Energy system modelling using a simultaneous approach in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) environment: design model of simple cycle gas turbine and steam power plants, offdesign model of a gas turbine.
Energy system modelling using a sequentialmodular approach in MatlabSimulink environment. Presentation of the different approaches used to model a gas turbine power plant for different choices of the independent variables. Dynamic model of a solar system with thermal storage.
Exergoeconomic analysis of energy systems using the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing) method and applications.
Basics of Pinch Technology for optimal integration of heat flows within power plants and industrial processes. Composite curves of the heat transfer. Solution of the "Problem Table" to find the minimum thermal utilities. Design of a heat exchanger network according to the maximum energy savings and minimum economic cost criteria.
(Possible additional part) Formulation of an optimization problem: objective function, constraints. Standard and evolutionary optimization algorithms. Mono and multiobjective optimization of the energy system design and operation. Design and of design optimization of macrosystems including several power and thermal plants. Design optimization of energy systems independently of the configuration of the heat exchangers network.
The Heatsep method for the optimization of the configurations of complex energy systems.
Evolution of the configuration of energy systems based on the Brayton Joule cycle. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

The course includes classroom lectures or lectures in the computing laboratory. The latter include the guided use of software for the construction of energy systems models mentioned at “Contents”.
The classroom lectures are intended to convey the criteria of the design and offdesign modeling and optimization of energy systems conversion and recovery, those in the computing laboratory aim to provide every tool that are needed to implement them in calculation programs. The set of lectures aims to fully respond to the achievement of learning objectives of the course that are listed in “Knowledge and skills to be acquired”. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

A pamphlet including all the topics covered in the lectures is provided. We recommend students to base their exampreparation not exclusively on this pamphlet suggesting lesson by lesson reference books for a fully understanding of each topic. The suggested books are listed in "Recommended Books". 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

A. Bejan, G. Tsatsaronis, M. Moran, Thermal Design and Optimization. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1996.

R.F. Boehm, Design Analysis of Thermal Systems. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1987.

W.F. Stoecker, Design of Thermal Systems. : McGrawHill, 1989.

S. Rao, Engineering Optimization, Theory and Practice. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1996.

G.V. Reklaitis, A. Ravindran, K.M. Ragsdell, Engineering Optimization Methods and Applications. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1983.

M. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 2010.


