
Course unit
STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS
SCO2044224, A.A. 2019/20
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
GEO/06 
Mineralogy 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
2nd Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Practice 
1.0 
10 
15.0 
No turn 
Laboratory 
1.0 
12 
13.0 
2 
Lecture 
4.0 
32 
68.0 
No turn 
Prerequisites:

Basics of chemistry, trigonometry, tensor calculus, properties of electromagnetic radiation. 
Target skills and knowledge:

The course wishes (1) to convey the concepts fundamental to the understanding of the structure and physicalchemistry of the crystalline state, (2) bring the student to understand the structural crystallographic literature (including the International Tables of Crystallography), and (3) introduce the basics of applications of Xray powder diffraction techniques in the characterization of materials. 
Examination methods:

Periodical written tests during the course.
Final oral examination. 
Assessment criteria:

Results of the tests completed during the course.
Comprehension ability and depth shown by the student during the final examination on the topics of the course. 
Course unit contents:

(1) The ideal crystal: periodicity in three dimensions, intuitive, graphical and mathematical description (Dirac delta function). Concept of simple and multiple lattices, crystallographic vectors, unit cell, asymmetric unit, description of the infinite ideal crystal. Introduction to symmetry operators and symmetry elements. Relationship between the 32 point groups and the symmetry of physical properties, The Neumann principle. Description of symmetry in crystal structures, the 230 symmetry space groups, multiplication tables. Perusal of the International Tables of crystallography. Basics of crystallographic computing: reference system transformations, metric matrix, bond distances and angles. Crystallographic databases.
(2) Introduction to diffraction physics: diffusion from one electron, from one atom, from the unit cell, and from a tridimensional lattice. Fourier transforms and antitransforms: the relationship between direct and reciprocal space. The Laue conditions, the Ewald's sphere, Bragg's law. Systematic extinctions of intensitioes, Friedel's law. Diffraction patterns indexing procedures. Basics of diffraction techniques: single crystal, powder. Description of the Xray powder diffraction experimental geometries using monochromatic and polychromatic radiation. The use and interpretation of diffraction patterns from polycrystalline materials: phase identification, quantitative analysis, structure analysis, microstructural analysis. Introduction to full profile analysis (Rietveld), mathematical description of the diffraction peaks, physical interpretation of the refined parameters. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Lectures on the course topics.
Laboratories and exercises:
 identification and interpretation of point groups (morphological symmetry)
 identification and interpretation of plane and space groups
 indexing procedures of diffraction patterns
 XRPD experimental data collection (sample preparation, use of BraggBrentano diffractometer)
 identification of crystalline phases from XRPD data (software HighScore plus, databases PDF2, ICSD)
 introduction to Rietveld refinement (software GSAS, HighScore Plus) 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Lecture notes: all lecture slides, teaching materials, and exercises are available on line:
http://geo.geoscienze.unipd.it/studenti/artioli/cryst/structure_of_solids.html 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

M. De Graef, M.E. McHenry, Structure of Materials. An introduction to crystallography, diffraction, and symmetry.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

A. Guagliardi, N. Masciocchi eds., Analisi di Materiali Policristallini mediante tecniche di diffrazione. : Insubria University Press, 2007. fornito dal docente

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Lecturing
 Laboratory
 Working in group
 Questioning
 Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
 specific crystallographic software
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

