First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SC16106130, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
SC1161, Degree course structure A.Y. 2008/09, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination MINERALOGY
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Biology
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge GABRIELLA SALVIULO GEO/06

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses GEO/06 Mineralogy 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Practice 1.0 12 13.0 2
Laboratory 2.0 32 18.0 3
Lecture 5.0 40 85.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2008 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
8 MINERALOGIA 2019-2020 01/10/2019 27/11/2020 SALVIULO GABRIELLA (Presidente)
VALENTINI LUCA (Membro Effettivo)
7 MINERALOGIA 2018-2019 01/10/2018 30/11/2019 SALVIULO GABRIELLA (Presidente)
VALENTINI LUCA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Knowledge gained from the courses:
Mathematics with elements of statistics, with particular reference to equations and trigonometric functions
General and inorganic chemistry, with particular reference to chemical bonds
Physics, with particular reference to the undulating phenomena.
Target skills and knowledge: This course provides an introduction to the physical, chemical and optical properties of minerals.
The course also aims to provide students with the knowledge of the basic principles of the main analytical methods for the identification of the crystalline phases.
At the end of the course students will have acquired the knowledge and skills for the identification of minerals.
The skills that the student will begin to acquire relate to the use of appropriate scientific terminology, the ability to synthesize and the autonomy of judgement.
Examination methods: The verification of the acquired knowledge takes place through an oral test consisting of: open questions, recognition of elements of symmetry and morphological description of crystals models, description of the physical properties of the minerals observable at scale To the recognition of the same.
This will highlight the knowledge, the scientific lexicon, the ability of synthesis and critical discussion acquired during the course. The test is based on topics covered and discussed in lecture.
To encourage the preparation of the students, a whole day of discussion and review of the course programme is always organized before each exam appeal.
Assessment criteria: The assessment of the student's preparation will be based on:
Understanding of the topics
Critical ability to connect acquired knowledge
Completeness of the knowledge acquired
Synthesis capabilities
Terminology properties Used
Course unit contents: Principles of crystallography: 2CFU
the lattice translation, concept and knit unit cell, crystallographic axes, indices of a face, elements of point symmetry, the seven crystal systems and 32 classes of symmetry;i Reticoli di Bravais. Examples of the main crystal structures. Exercises description of the symmetry of a crystal with stereographic projection.
Crystal chemistry:1 CFU
the lithosphere composition and abundance of the elements; polyhedra and coordination numbers; Pauling rules. Isomorphism and solid solutions; polymorphism.
The physical properties of minerals and relations with the crystal chemistry: dress, specific gravity, hardness, fracture and cleavage, luster, color, reactivity with acids, magnetism, radioactivity.
Systematic mineralogy: 2CFU
composition, structure and physical characteristics of the most common minerals of the classes of carbonates and silicates (nesosilicates, sorosilicates, cyclosilicates, inosilicates, phyllosilicates, tectosilicates) and relevant notes the following classes: native elements, sulfides, halides, oxides and hydroxides, sulphates, phosphates. Laboratory of hand specimen identification of minerals.
Optical properties: 1.5 CFU
general light waves; visible spectrum; polarized light; reflection and refraction; methods to obtain monochromatic light; double refraction and birefringence; surface wave and surface indices; colors of interference; Optic indicatrix , optical orientation in different crystal systems. observation of crystals with polarized light microscopy, in parallel light and conoscopy (notes).
Theory of X-ray diffraction by crystals: 1.5 CFU
nature and properties of X-ray; interactions between radiation and crystal; Bragg equation. The powder method and the diffractometer; single crystal methods (outline); spectrometric techniques: fluorescence and electron microprobe. Scanning electron microscopy. Examples of calculation of crystal chemical formulae.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The course is organized in lectures whose contents are presented in PPT with the help of images, Diagrams and videos. The teaching is interactive, with questions and presentation of case studies, to To promote discussion and critical reflection in the classroom.
At the end of each topic a short feedback test is launched to the students using the The teaching page enabled in the online resource

Tutorials morphological crystallography
Laboratory of hand specimen identification of minerals
The subjects of exercises and labs are always introduced by the teacher. The educational path to follow is exposed; then the students are stimulated to work individually or in small groups, depending on their preference, and then to discuss with the teachers.
Additional notes about suggested reading: All the teaching material used (PPT lessons, articles on case studies, update review of the contents of the recommended texts) is made available to students in
E-Learning platform:

In addition to the reference text and to a greater depth in the study suggests the possible consultation of the following books and teaching materials :
Guastoni, Appiani: Tutto Minerali, ed. Mondadori
FD Bloss: An introduction to the methods of optical crystallography. Ed Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Mottana, Crespi, Liborio: Minerali e Rocce, Ed. Mondadori
Notes from lectures.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Klein Cornelis, Mineralogia. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2012. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Laboratory
  • Case study
  • Working in group
  • Questioning
  • Problem solving
  • Use of online videos

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)

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