First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SCO2045386, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
IF1839, Degree course structure A.Y. 2011/12, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 12.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Biology
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge ELISA GREGGIO BIO/09
Other lecturers LISA MACCATROZZO VET/01

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses BIO/09 Physiology 6.0
Core courses BIO/06 Comparative Anatomy and Citology 2.0
Core courses BIO/16 Human Anatomy 2.0
Core courses VET/01 Anatomy of Domestic Animals 2.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Lecture 12.0 96 204.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2011 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
MACCATROZZO LISA (Membro Effettivo)
MACCATROZZO LISA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Background knowledge in math, physics, chemistry and biology
Target skills and knowledge: The course is divided into two modules. Module A (General animal and comparative physiology) provides the basis for understanding the functional processes at the level of cells, tissues, organs and systems in relation to the exchange of matter, energy and information. It also provides the basis for understanding the mechanisms of functional integration at the level of the exchange surfaces between the compartments and their importance in the homeostatic control of the internal environment of the organisms. Case studies on the physiology of organs will be used for model organisms appropriately selected. In module B (Histology and Embryology, Anatomy of laboratory animals, Human Anatomy), the course is divided into a general section that discusses the basics of histology and in a special section devoted to the anatomy of animals veterinary laboratory and human anatomy. In the discussion of the general organization of the mammalian and human body basic concepts of histology and microscopic anatomy will be introduced, with particular attention to the functional morphology and development of the organs. In the discussion of the special part of veterinary the most commonly used species in biotechnology research will be discussed.
Examination methods: Written exam per each module.
Assessment criteria: Module A.
The exam will consistes of both open and true/false questions. It will be evaluated according to the answers given to each question, in terms of completeness of the information provided in each answer, link capability between different concepts (consequential logic) and for the presence of errors. The answer to each question will be evaluated numerically and the total score of the test will be the sum of the scores obtained in the individual answers.

Module B.
A written test with open questions: one of histology, one of embryology, two of comparative animal anatomy and two of human anatomy (two hours). The knowledge of the different phases of the embryonic development of mammals, of histological tissues and of the organs that compose the apparatuses will be evaluated, using a correct anatomical terminology. Furthermore, the ability to relate the organs to each other (topographical anatomy) and to highlight species differences (comparative anatomy), will be evaluated.

The overall grade of the examination (module A and B) will be the average of the scores obtained for each module.
Course unit contents: Module A (6 CFU, 48 hours).

1- Permeability and transport ((1 CFU). Physical barriers in biological systems for anelectrolytes, electrolytes and water. Concept of internal environment of an organism and homeostatic control.
2- Electric Signalling and Nervous systems (2 CFU). Passive electrical properties of the membrane; Nernst potential and resting potential; action potentials; cable theory. Electrical and chemical synapses. Outline of sensory receptors and codification of intensity of the stimuli. Organization of the nervous system in a comparative perspective.
3- Muscles (1 CFU). Mechanisms of excitability and contractility of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; excitation-contraction coupling; tetany and motor unit recruitment of skeletal muscle; myogenic excitement of the heart muscle; contraction mechanism of smooth muscle cells, endocrine and nervous control of the heart and smooth muscle.
4- Hormones (0.5 CFU). Classification of hormones and hormone-endocrine control correlation; the neuroendocrine system.
5- Circulatory systems (1 CFU). Hemodynamics; the heart as a pump: electrical and mechanical properties; nervous and hormonal regulation of blood pressure.
6- Respiratory systems. Exchange and transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide; pH regulation; exchange of gases in air and water: lungs, gills; swim bladder.
7- Osmotic balance (0.5 CFU). Aquatic and terrestrial organisms; ultrafiltration, renal reabsorption and concentration of urine; osmoregulation in aquatic organisms.

Module B (6 CFU).
Histology. 1-Epithelial tissue: structural and ultrastructural morphological description, classification, localization and function of a) coating, b) glandular exocrine and endocrine, c) sensory and d) particularly differentiated epithelia. 2- Connective tissue: a) Connective tissues: loose fibrillar, reticular, elastic, dense connective, adipose unilocular and multilocular; b) Cartilage; c) non-lamellar and lamellar bone tissue, compact and spongy bone tissue. Direct and indirect ossification ; d) Blood: plasma and formed elements. 3- Muscle tissue: morphological organization and classification (smooth muscle, skeletal and cardiac muscle), the structure of myofibrils. 4- Nervous tissue: the neuron morphology and their classification. Glia. Structure of nerve. Synapses. Anatomical and functional organization of the CNS and PNS.

Embryology. Spermatogenesis and spermioistogenesis. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis. Fertilization. Zygote formation. Segmentation: mode and significance, types of egg, types of segmentation. Morula. Blastocyst: implantation and nesting. Gastrulation. Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Fetal membranes: different types of placenta in mammals.

Anatomy: General principles of the organization of the human body. Systems and organs. Subdivision of the human body; external examination and internal examination. Musculoskeletal, blood and circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, endocrine (Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal), reproductive (male and female) systems.
Anatomy of laboratory animals: comparative aspects of the anatomical characteristics of the species most commonly used in biotechnology research, with particular attention to digestive, respiratory, urinary, male and female reproductive and endocrine.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Lectures are organized in order to stimulate the active participation of students, in the discussion of paradigmatic issues. The cases considered are discussed with the active contribution of students.
Additional notes about suggested reading: Prior to the beginning of an argument, powerpoint slides used during classes will be made available to students in the Moodle website ( When appropriate, articles on innovative topics from specialized journals will be provided.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Lauralee Sherwood, Hillary Klandorf, Paul Yancey, Fisiologia degli animali. Dai geni agli organismi. --: Zanichelli, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Cozzi B., Ballarin C., Peruffo A., CarĂ¹ F., Anatomia degli animali da laboratorio. Roditori e lagomorfi.. --: Milano: CEA, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Junqueira L.C., Carneiro J., Kelley R.O., Compendio di istologia. --: Padova: Piccin, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Patruno M, Lab Practical of Veterinary Histology. --: Padova: Libreria Cortina Editore, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Pelagalli V, Castaldo L, Lucini C, Patruno M, Scocco P., Embriologia: Morfogenesi e anomalie dello sviluppo. --: Idelson-Gnocchi, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Randall D., Burggren W., French K., Animal Physiology - Mechanisms and Adaptations. --: Eckert, --. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Interactive lecturing
  • Active quizzes for Concept Verification Tests and class discussions

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