First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Course unit
AGN1029222, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
AG0057, Degree course structure A.Y. 2017/18, A.Y. 2018/19
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and the Environment
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance No
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge SAVERIO SANTI CHIM/02
Other lecturers MARCO BORTOLUS CHIM/02

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Basic courses CHIM/02 Physical Chemistry 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 1st Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Laboratory 1.0 8 17.0 4
Lecture 7.0 56 119.0 No turn

Start of activities 01/10/2018
End of activities 18/01/2019
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2017 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
8 Commissione a.a. 2018/19 01/12/2018 30/11/2019 SANTI SAVERIO (Presidente)
BORTOLUS MARCO (Membro Effettivo)
7 Commissione a.a. 2017/18 01/12/2017 30/11/2018 SANTI SAVERIO (Presidente)
BORTOLUS MARCO (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Not required
Target skills and knowledge: The student acquires the knowledges of the basic principles of Chemistry, Electrochemistry and Thermodynamics, as well as the rudiments of the practice in a chemical laboratory.

Lectures will allow to acquire the following knowledge and skills:
1. to know the structure of the atom and its electronic configuration;
2. be able to read the Periodic Table of the Elements and to predict the main chemical properties of atoms;
3. be able to derive the nomenclature of a compound on the basis of its chemical structure (and vice versa);
4. be able to balance simple and redox chemical reaction;
5. know the principles of thermodynamics and be able to apply them to calculate the ideal performance of thermal and refrigerating machines and heat pumps;
6. to know the colligative properties of the solutions (ebullioscopic elevation, cryoscopic lowering and osmosis);
7. be able to derive the thermal balance (variation of Internal Energy and Enthalpy) of a reaction based on the First Principle of Thermodynamics;
8. be able to predict the equilibrium constant of a reaction under standard conditions and with variations of T, P and composition;
9. be able to calculate the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, and of their salts.
10. be able to calculate the pH of buffer solutions at various concentrations of an acid and its conjugate base (and vice versa).
11. be able to derive the solubility and solubility product of a slightly soluble salt, even in the presence of a common ion or at different pH values;
12. be able to calculate the electromotive force of a battery, according to the composition of the redox couple.

The practical laboratory activity will allow to acquire the following knowledges and skills:
1. be able to prepare a solution by known title;
2. to be aable to titrate a strong base with a strong acid and a weak acid with a strong base;
3. be able to determine the vitamin C content in an unknown solution;
4. be able to determine the vitamin C content in fruit and vegetable juices and pulp;
5. be able to determine the content of acetic acid in a white vinegar.
6. be able to draw up a report of the experimental results.
Examination methods: The knowledges and skills acquired awill bere verified with a test divided into three parts:
1. a practical test in the laboratory: determination of vitamin C in an unknown solution;
2. a written exam that includes 9 questions of a theoretical nature (unit of measurement, matter composition, atom structure, electronic configuration, nomenclature and 11 exercises (gas laws, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, pH, solubility and batteries);
3. an oral exam that includes a discussion of the test and of the laboratory report, questions on nomenclature and the topics not correctly performed in the test.
Assessment criteria: The evaluation of the knowledges and skills acquired will be based on the following criteria:
1. understanding of the topics of the lecture;
2. ability to solve chemical calculation exercises;
3. ability to perform simple laboratory experiments;
4. ability to draft clear and concise reports about the laboratory work.
Course unit contents: 1° CFU
The composition of matter.
Atoms and molecules. The atomic and molecular theory: the electronic structure of atoms. The hydrogen atom. Multi-electron atoms. Atomic and molecular orbitals. Orbital energy. Determining the electron configuration: the Aufbau. The Periodic Table of the Elements, the rules and the periodic trends.
Chemical bond.
Covalent and ionic bonds. Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond. Metallic bond.
2° CFU:
State of matter.
Solid and liquid phases. Gas phase. Ideal gas. Dalton’s. Boyle’s law. Charles’s and Gay-Lussac’s laws. Avogadro’s law. Equation of state of ideal gas. Real gasses and equation of state of Van der Waals.
Forming chemical substances, mole, formulas and nomenclature, oxidation state, chemical equation.
3° CFU
Basic concepts of Thermodynamics.
Energy, system, surroundings and universe. Intensive and extensive properties. State functions. Internal Energy; heat and work. Thermal capacity. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. First Law of Thermodynamics: energy conservation, Joule's experiment (heat = work).
Enthalpy. Applications of the First Law to ideal and real gasses.
4° CFU
Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy: statistic and thermodynamic definition. Heat engine and efficiency. Carnot Cycle: Clausius inequality. Clausius and Kelvin statements. Reversible and irreversible processes. Fundamental equation of the Internal Energy. Third Law of Thermodynamics. Gibbs Energy and its fundamental equation.
5° CFU
Thermodynamics of phase transitions.
Equilibrium theory: chemical potential.
Multi-component systems.
Mixing processes. Solutions and Raoult's and Henry Laws. Equilibrium perturbation and Le Chatelier’s principle. Thermodynamic definition of colligative properties.
6° and 7° CFU
Systems of variable composition.
Chemical equilibrium in gas phase. Chemical equilibrium and Gibbs energy variation. Temperature and pressure dependence. Van’t Hoff equation. Chemical equilibrium in solution. Ionic equilibria in water solution. Acids-base chemistry. Dissociation of water. pH measure. Buffer solutions. Polyprotic acids acid-base titration. Low soluble salts. Solubility product and common ion effect.
Hess' law and Kirchhoff equation. Calculation of heat of reaction. Exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Conductivity of electrolytic solutions and degree of dissociation. Electrolysis. Faraday’s laws. Voltaic cells. Standard-State Cell and Standard-State Reduction Half-Cell Potentials. Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions with Standard-State Reduction Half-Cell Potentials. Chemical Kinetics.
Reaction rate and rate constant. Kinetic law: order and molecularity. Reaction mechanism. Arrhenius Law. Laboratory (4 hours).
8° CFU
Basic experiment (preparation of solutions, acid-base titration, pH measurements):
quantitative determination of vitamin C in food;
quantitative determination of acetic acid in vinegar.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The course is conducted through the following activity:
1. lectures with use is made of slides which are then made available to the students;
2. laboratory with basic experiments and in the field of food chemistry, performed by groups of 2 students who will present a written report of the results obtained;
3. a seminar on food chemistry.
Additional notes about suggested reading: The slides used during the lectures will be provided to the students at the beginning of each topic on moodle platform.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Peter Atkins, Loretta Jones, Fondamenti di chimica. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2014. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Laboratory
  • Working in group
  • Questioning
  • Use of online videos
  • Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Good Health and Well-Being Quality Education