First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SC01122935, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course Second cycle degree in
SC1174, Degree course structure A.Y. 2015/16, A.Y. 2018/19
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Degree course track Common track
Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Chemical Sciences
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance No
Language of instruction English
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge DAVIDE DE SALVADOR FIS/03
Other lecturers ENRICO NAPOLITANI FIS/03

Course unit code Course unit name Teacher in charge Degree course code

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses FIS/03 Material Physics 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 1st Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Practice 2.0 24 26.0 No turn
Lecture 6.0 48 102.0 No turn

Start of activities 01/10/2018
End of activities 18/01/2019

Examination board
Examination board not defined

Prerequisites: Mathematical prerequisites:
Continuous functions. Derivatives. Fundamental theorems of differential calculus. Relative and absolute maxima and minima. Exponential and logarithmic trigonometric functions. Study of a function. Definite integrals. Solid volumes of rotation. Taylor and Maclaurin series. Complex numbers. Exponential in the complex field. Differential equations. Linear differential equations of first order and second order. Functions of multiple variables. Limitations. Partial derivatives. Maximum and minimum relative. Saddle points. Double integrals in polar coordinates. Solid volumes. Triple integral. Vector differential calculus: flow of a vector field across a surface. Divergence of a field and divergence theorem.

Basic Physics Prerequisites
Coulomb's law. Electrostatic field. Electrostatic potential. Gauss's law. Poisson and Laplace equations. Capacity; ideal capacitor. Dielectric constant. Electrical currents and current density. Conservation of the charge. Ohm's law. Joule effect. Magnetic field; Lorentz force.

Quantum Physics Prerequisites :
Light quanta and photo-electric effect. Wave packs. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Shroedinger equation particle in a box. Quantum harmonic oscillator. Expectation values. Observables and operators. Quantum uncertainty and properties of eigenvalues. Square barrier tunnel effect. Penetration of the barrier. Particle in a three-dimensional box. Hydrogen atom and hydrogen atoms: fundamental state and excited states. Periodic table. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and density of states. Energy provision. Quantum statistics: Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions
Solid state physics Prerequisites
The crystalline structure of solids: the direct lattice and the reciprocal lattice. Phonons. The electrical conductivity of metals in the Drude model. Bloch's theorem.
Target skills and knowledge: Knowledge: physical principles underlying the behavior of semiconductor materials. The goal of the course is to provide the basic concepts that enable the student to understand the working principle of a simple semiconductor device. At the beginning the students are introduced to the physical principles, then the main devices and some manufacturing processes will be described.
At the end of the course the student should have the ability to predict the band bending of a simple system that contains metals, insulators and doped semiconductors and to understand the explanation of how such a structure behaves in the presence of external forces (fields, lighting. ...).
Examination methods: Oral exam. During the semester it will be possible to give a mid-term oral exam about the first part of the course concenrning on physical principle; at the end a second oral exam on the devices and processes will complete the final grade.
Assessment criteria: The following item will be evaluated:
-the ability to expose one or more of the basic theories that explain the physical behavior of semiconductors.
- Understanding of the principle of operation of one or more semiconductor devices explained in the course.
- The ability to understand the band structure and the electrical behavior of a simple structure containing doped semiconductors, metals and insulators.
Course unit contents: Review of the crystal structure of the main semiconductors. Elementary semiconductors , compounds and alloys.
Review of solid state basic concepts ( Bloch theorem , effective mass , concept of hole ) .
Origin and specificity of semiconductors band structure. The real bands (examples: GaAs , Si, Ge, AlGaAs ) .
The envelope function method for the calculation of quantum states generated by aperiodic potential.
The mechanism of doping. The carriers in a homogeneous semiconductor as a function of doping and temperature ( semic. non-degenerate, intrinsic, ionized , partially ionized , in saturation). The compensation by deep level.
The semiconductor non-homogeneous equilibrium. The case of the p-n junction .
Charge transport in semiconductors. Drift -diffusion equation. Intraband scattering phenomena and mobility in a semiconductor.

The mechanisms of generation and recombination in a semiconductor.
The equation of continuity. The case of the p-n junction under polarization.
The heterojunction joints metal / semiconductor , metal / oxide / semiconductor.
The quantum confinement in semiconductor quantum well , quantum wire , quantum dot .
LEDs , GaN based LED, photodetectors. Solid state laser architectures, quantum confinement effect on lasering. Photovoltaic cells. Different architectures and materials for photovoltaics. Efficiency. Mechanisms of loss of efficiency . Thin-film cells.
Produttive.Transistor bipolar and FET technologies . MOS structure.
Doping techniques. Ion implantation. Diffusion and defect .
Insulation, thermal oxidation.
Moore's Law and scaling. Issues and new materials.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Frontal lesson with basic theories and operating principles of the devices. Examples allowing to apply the theories and quantifying the orders of magnitude of the physical parameters involved. Mention to laboratory activities carried out simultaneously during the "physical methods of material characterization" course and their connection with theory.
Additional notes about suggested reading: Lectures slides will be provided
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Sapoval, Physics of semiconductors. --: Springer Verlag, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Singh, Electronic and Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductor Structures. --: Cambridge, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Sze, Simon Min, Semiconductor devicesphysics and technologyS. M. Sze. New York: J. Wiley & sons, --. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Problem based learning
  • Case study
  • Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Affordable and Clean Energy