First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SC02119324, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course Second cycle degree in
SC1170, Degree course structure A.Y. 2015/16, A.Y. 2018/19
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 6.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Chemical Sciences
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance No
Language of instruction English
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge MARCO FRASCONI CHIM/01

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses CHIM/01 Analytical Chemistry 6.0

Course unit organization
Period Second semester
Year 1st Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Lecture 6.0 48 102.0 No turn

Start of activities 25/02/2019
End of activities 14/06/2019
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2015 course timetable

Examination board
Examination board not defined

Prerequisites: Knowledge of instrumental analysis: molecular spectroscopy (UV-Vis and infrared spectroscopies), electroanalytical chemistry (potentiometry and voltammetry), gas-chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry.
Target skills and knowledge: The course aims to introduce the principles and applications of the Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), illustrating the analytical technologies that can be used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data of manufactured products of industrial chemical processes, with the purpose of performance controlling and optimization. The content of the course covers methods of process analysis systems including sampling systems, real-time analyzes and the data analysis with process control strategies.
Particular attention is paid to automation of processes and analytical systems, based on chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrochemical techniques, applicable for the real-time characterization of the production process.
Examination methods: The exam consists of a written assay, on a focused topic on process analytical control, and an oral exam with the presentation and discussion of the assay, follow by two questions on the core topics of the course. The final mark is calculated from the assessment marks of the written assay and oral exam.
Assessment criteria: Understanding level of the instrumental principles and of experimental details adopted in process analytical systems. Knowledge of scientific and technical terminology of the subject.
Course unit contents: 1) Introduction to Process Analytical Chemistry.
2) Sampling for analytical purposes. Sampling systems.
3) Data domains and signal elaboration. Sources of noise in instrumental analysis and signal-to-noise optimization strategies.
4) On-line chromatographic techniques. Process gas-chromatography (GC) and liquid-chromatography. Multidimensional chromatography. Applications of GC and multidimensional GC in the petrochemical industry.
5) Optical spectroscopy for process analyses. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: instrumentation design and sampling interface. Practical examples of IR and Raman analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry.
6) On-line analysis with mass spectrometry. Application in process control and monitoring in the food industry.
7) Principles of chemical sensors. Origins of sensor selectivity: thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Types, preparation and properties of sensors.
8) Electrochemical sensors. Potentiometry and ion-selective electrodes. Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFET). High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor in combustion process monitoring. Amperometric sensors and biosensors. Applications of electrochemical sensors in bioprocess monitoring and control.
9) Conductometric sensors. Resistive and capacitive gas sensors. Impedance humidity sensors.
10) Optical sensors. Optical fibers as a basis for optical sensors. Optical ion sensors and immunosensors.
11) Automated methods of analysis. Flow injection analysis and applications in industrial biotechnology.
12) Microanalytical systems. Overview of miniaturization of analytical instruments utilizing microfabrication technology. Application of lab-on-chip detection techniques in bioanalytical studies.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Classroom lectures, seminars, examples of some instrumental details and demonstration of some equipment operations.
Additional notes about suggested reading: Lecture notes.

Katherine A. Bakeev, Process Analytical Technology: Spectroscopic Tools and Implementation Strategies for the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Douglas A. Skoog, James J. Leary, Principles of instrumental analysis. Saunders College publishing, 1992.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Case study
  • Action learning

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure Responsible Consumption and Production