First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Course unit
AVP7078317, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course Second cycle degree in
AG0065, Degree course structure A.Y. 2017/18, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and the Environment
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance No
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge STEFANO SCHIAVON AGR/18

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses AGR/18 Animal Nutrition and Feeding 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Practice 3.0 24 51.0 No turn
Laboratory 1.0 8 17.0 No turn
Lecture 4.0 32 68.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2017 course timetable

Prerequisites: General knowledges about mathematic and statistic; chemistry and biochemistry; agronomy, animal, crop and forage productions; animal feeding and nutrition; economy
Target skills and knowledge: To pass the final examination the student must have acquired knowledge about:
Sustainability in animal production systems;
Regulations regarding animal manure disposal;
Methodologies to quantificate nutrient emissions from farm animals;
Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of animal farming, with emphasis on feeding and nutrition;
Feed formulation
In addition, the student will be able to:
Develop indices of technical, economical and environmental sustainability of animal farming;
Perform a quantitatve evaluation of nutrient excretion from animals at farm and territorial levels, and the need of agricultural land required for manure disposal;
Formulate diets with a low environmental impact without impairment of animal performance and quality of products;
Examination methods: The examination is completed in written form and it consists in:
- 4-5 exercises for solving problems of quantification of manure production and nutrient emission from different kinds animal farms (dairy and beef cattle, pigs, sows and poultry;
- 4-5 exercise for determining nutrient requirments and dietary characteristics for formulating low-impact rations avoiding impairement of production performance and quality of products;
- 1-2 Exercises for developing indexes of sustainability for animal farming systems in different production circumstances;
- 1-2 questions about regulations and other issues presented during the lessons

For working students the examination might be completed according to different procedures.
Assessment criteria: The evaluation is based on:
1) assessment of acquired knownledge.
2) ability to solve practical problems about the quantification of manure production and nutrient emission from farm animals based on technical indexes easily achievable at farm or at territorial level.
3) ability to identify strategies for improving the technical, economical, and environmental sustainability at farm and territorial levels.
4) ability to identify benefits and shortcomings of a given technological implementation (management and feeding)from different points of view: technical, economical, environmental and ethical(welfare of human and animal beings).
5) ability to project rations for dairy cows at low environmental impact.
6) ability to project feeds for growing pig for the lowest excretion of nutrient and to improve the quality of the hams.
Course unit contents: 1° CFU. The concept of sustainability applied on animal agriculture;
2° CFU. Technical indexes for measuring efficiency of animal farms in the use of natural resources;
3° CFU. Animal farms and environmental impact.
4° CFU. Characteristics of animal manures. Evaluation of nutrient excretion based on simple farm indexes.
5° CFU. Evolution of European and national regulations regarding manure disposal on agricultural soils;
6° CFU. Feeding and management strategies to reduce nutrient excretion: a) reduction of number of animal but maintaining farm productions; b) feeding strategies: control of slurry volume, and reduction of N, P, heavy metals and gas.
7° CFU. Systems for the determination of nutrient requirements for established goals of production. Formulation of feeds for a low environmental impact.
8° CFU. Animal farming in marginal areas. Practical examples on opportunity and strategies for the promoting animal husbandry in alpine areas.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Frontal lessons and exercises
1) Frontal lessons and exercises are integrated, so that after the theory the student have to solve practical problems with data coming from (i) actual farms; (ii) experimental data; (iii) territorial data; (iv) mathematical models.
2) The ability to solve problems at individual or group basis is routinary tested with specific exercises with examples taken from the practice.
3) Toward the middle and at the end of the course simulations of final examination are proposed to the students.
4) Exercises, with or without solutions, are available in the web site.
Additional notes about suggested reading: Knownledge in this area is still in evolution, a complete text does not exist. Material for study is the following:

1) Power-point presentations of lessons are avaialble on the web site (access with password).

2) AA.VV. Allevamento animale e riflessi ambientali, 2010. (G.M. Crovetto e Anna Sandrucci, eds) Fondazione iniziative zooprofilattiche, Brescia, Tke care, this text regards only a part of the program of this course.

3) Recent scientific publications, in english, are distributed during the lessons or the laboratory acitivity, or sent by e-mail.

4) Feed formulation programs, developed with the students are made available on the web site.

5) Master of Science or PHD theysis regarding issues of present course are made available.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Crovetto GM e Sandrucci A., Allevamento animale e riflessi ambientali. Brescia: Fondazione iniziative zooprofilattiche, 2010. Cerca nel catalogo