First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Medicine
Course unit
MEL1001928, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course 6 years single cycle degree in
ME1730, Degree course structure A.Y. 2017/18, A.Y. 2018/19
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination HISTOLOGY, CYTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Department of reference Department of Neurosciences
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit CANNOT be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit is available ONLY for students enrolled in SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY (Ord. 2017)

Teacher in charge MAURIZIO ONISTO BIO/13

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Basic courses BIO/17 Histology 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 1st Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Lecture 8.0 80 120.0 No turn

Start of activities 01/10/2018
End of activities 18/01/2019
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2017 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
RIGOBELLO MARIA PIA (Membro Effettivo)
RIGOBELLO MARIA PIA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of cell biology and biochemistry
Target skills and knowledge: At the end of the course, students will be able to:
-describe the morphology and functional organization of the eukaryotic cell and its various compartments and organelles.
-outline the process of gamete formation and the early stages of embryonic development (from fertilization to trilaminar embryo formation)
-describe the microscopic structure and morpho-functional relationships of the different tissues of the human body with particular reference to the tissues of the tooth and its apparatus of restraint
Examination methods: Test on 60 multiple-choice questions about the tooth. Recognition of a histological specimen. Oral exam on: Cytology-Histology-Embryology
Assessment criteria: To overcome the first test on the tooth it must be achieved at least a score of 48/60 (max 12 errors).
To access the oral examination the student must also have recognized the histological preparation.To the final score contribute the vote on the tooth test (2/10), the slide (1/10) and the oral test (7/10).
Course unit contents: Discipline Cytology:
General organization of cellular organisms. Chemical composition and general structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Tools and methods of investigation of cells and tissues: methods of preparation for microscopy observation (light and electron microscopy), histochemistry and cytochemistry, cell culture, cell fractionation methods, immunocytochemical techniques.
The plasma membrane. Chemical composition. Molecular architecture. Features: permeability and transport, simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport. Carrier proteins and ion channels. General principles in the transmission of cellular signals. Glycocalyx. Concept of receptor. Endocytosis. Specializations of the cell surface, including the junction complexes.
Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic matrix: chemical composition, enzyme systems included. Cytoskeleton: microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments. Cilia and centrioles. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus and secretory pathways. Sorting of proteins. Lysosomes and endocytosis processes. Mitochondria. Peroxisomes.
Nucleus. Structure of the interphase nucleus. Euchromatin and heterochromatin. Nuclear membrane. Nuclear matrix. Chromatin structure: DNA and histone proteins, nucleosomes. Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes. Concept of the gene and genetic code. Protein synthesis: introns and exons, methods of synthesis of the various types of RNA involved, the primary transcript and processing. mRNA, its interaction with ribosomes, assembly of proteins.

Discipline: Embryology
Gamete formation. Spermatogenesis and folliculogenesis. Ooforo follicle. Fertilization, cleavage, implantation. Formation of fetal membranes. Formation of bilaminar-trilaminar germinal disc , differentiation of germ layers and defining the shape of the body. Fate of germ layers. Stomodeo, bucco-pharyngeal membrane, formation process of the maxillary and mandibular arch. Formation of the dental lamina, enamel organ, dental papilla, root and restraint apparatus of the deciduous and permanent teeth.

Discipline: Histology
Epithelial tissue. Coating and glandular epithelium: distribution and classification. Mode of secretion of exocrine and endocrine glands.
Connective tissue. Extracellular matrix. Amorphous substance: proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. Quote fibrillary: interstitial collagens and constituent of basement membranes, elastic fibers and microfibrils. Structure of the basement membrane. Cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells, fat cells, endothelial cells.
Cartilage: hyaline cartilage, fibrous and elastic.
Bone tissue: tissue organization (non-lamellar bone and lamellar, compact and spongy). Cells and the extracellular matrix. Ossification direct and indirect. Mechanisms of calcification.
Teeth. Dentin, enamel, cement, pulp, periodontal sheath: general organization, cells and extracellular matrix.
Blood. Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets. Blood clotting. Notes on the immune system (B and T lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, plasma cells). Overview of hematopoiesis erythrocyte, leukocyte and magacariocyte.
Muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac conduction tissue. Molecular basis of pulse propagation and muscle contraction.
Nerve tissue. Organization of the neuron. Nerve fibers. Synapses and neuromuscular junction.
Molecular basis of nerve impulse transmission. Glial cells.
Practical part. Histological preparations: fingertip skin, nasal mucosa, salivary gland, cardias, newborn rib bonee(hyaline cartilage), adult rib bone (endochondral ossification), tongue, dental pulp, tooth
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: During the lessons it will be used PowerPoint presentation.
There are practical laboratory exercises where the student will observe by light microscopy the following histological specimens: fingertip skin, nasal mucosa, salivary gland, cardias, newborn rib bonee(hyaline cartilage), adult rib bone (endochondral ossification), tongue, dental pulp, tooth
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Bloom & Fawcett, Trattato di Istologia. --: McGrow Hill, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Jeffrey B Kerr, “ Istologia funzionale”,. --: Casa Ed Ambrosiana, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Ross M.H. – Pawlina W.., “Istologia”. --: Casa Ed.Ambrosiana, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Cui D, Atlante di Istologia. --: Piccin, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Karp G., “Biologia cellulare e molecolare”,. --: EdiSES, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Cooper G. M.- Hausman R.E., "La cellula - un approccio molecolare",. --: Piccin, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • T.W. Sadler, “Embriologia medica del Langman". --: Masson, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Moore & Persaud, “Lo sviluppo prenatale dell’uomo”,. --: EdiSES, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • De Felici- Boitani et al., “Embriologia Umana". --: Piccin, --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Adamo-Comoglio- et al., Istologia di V.Monesi. --: Piccin, --. Cerca nel catalogo