First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Medicine
Course unit
MEP5071038, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2018/19

Information on the course unit
Degree course 6 years single cycle degree in
ME1729, Degree course structure A.Y. 2015/16, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 11.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination MICROBIOLOGY
Department of reference Department of Medicine
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit CANNOT be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit is available ONLY for students enrolled in MEDICINE AND SURGERY (Ord. 2015)

Teacher in charge CRISTIANO SALATA MED/07
Other lecturers ANDREA CRISANTI MED/07

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses MED/07 Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology 11.0

Course unit organization
Period Second semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Group didactic activities 0.0 44 0.0 No turn
Lecture 11.0 88 187.0 No turn

Start of activities 02/03/2020
End of activities 12/06/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2015 course timetable

Prerequisites: To follow the Microbiology course profitably, students must possess knowledge of cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In addition, knowledge of anatomy and physiology will be necessary for an adequate understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.
Target skills and knowledge: At the end of the Microbiology course, the student must know:
i) structure and replication cycle of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi;
ii) laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites;
iii) principles of microbial genetics and effects on the spread of the microbial drug resistance and on the pathogenicity;
iv) host defense mechanisms against infectious agents; host damage mechanisms of the main human pathogens;
v) the mechanism of action of the main antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic drugs; the molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset and spread of resistance;
vi) epidemiology, transmission route and pathogenesis of infectious agents specified in the program.
Examination methods: A midterm exam will be provided at the end of the frontal lectures on Bacteriology and Mycology (if compatible with the teaching activity of the semester) and 2 scheduled exams for each official session, for a total of 6 scheduled exams for academic year. In the same session, and the student will have the right to enroll in each exam. There are no extraordinary exams.

Registration to the examination lists: approximately twenty days before each exam, two separate lists will be opened on the UNIWEB website: one for the exam of Bacteriology and Mycology and one for the exam of Parasitology and Virology. For each exam, the student can enroll in both lists, if he wishes to take the entire exam in the same day, or he can enroll only in one of the two lists if he wants to take only one of the two partial exams. Only students booked on the exam through UNIWEB will be admitted to the evaluation.

The registration of the final vote will take place only on the dedicated sessions communicated from time to time by the teachers and indicated in UNIWEB.

Midterm exam: compatibly with the organization of the teaching activity of the semester, this assessment can be envisaged at the end of the Bacteriology and Mycology lessons during the regular lesson time. This is a written test consisting of 60 questions (30 with a single answer and 30 with a combined answer). The time available will be 70 minutes. 1 point will be assigned for each correct answer, 0 points for incorrect or missing answers. The vote will expire after one calendar year.

Exams in official sessions: the exam will be written and will consist of two tests (one on Bacteriology and Mycology and one on Parasitology and Virology). The time available for each test will be 70 minutes. The two tests can be supported in the same call of exams, in the same session or in different official sessions. Each test will consist of 30 single-answer questions, 30 multiple-choice questions. 1 point will be assigned for a correct answer, 0 points for incorrect or missing answers. The vote will expire after one calendar year.

The final vote, which will be registered online via UNIWEB, will derive from the average of the marks obtained in the two individual tests.

Optional oral exam: if the student wishes to improve the final vote, he can take an oral exam (optional) on the entire program of the course of Microbiology, about a week after the written exam, during the specific registration call indicated via UNIWEB.
Assessment criteria: The assessment of the student's preparation will be based on an understanding of the topics covered, on the acquisition of the proposed concepts and methodologies and on the ability to apply them appropriately.
Course unit contents: Prokaryotes
• Principles of bacterial taxonomy
• Structure and function of the components of the bacterial cell
• Bacterial spores: sporogenesis and germination
• Bacterial physiology and metabolism
• Bacterial genetics
• Human microbiota in normal and pathological conditions
• Pathogenesis of bacterial infection
• Cultivation of bacteria
• General principles of laboratory diagnostics of diseases with bacterial etiology
• Structure, mechanism of action and activity of antibacterial drugs.
• Molecular basis of drug resistance
• Methods for determining sensitivity to antibiotics

Systematics: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Brucella, Haemophilus, Bordetella, Bacillus and Clostridium, Treponema, Borrelia and Leptospira. Bacteroides and other anaerobic bacteria, Legionella, Rickettsia, Coxiella and related genera, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Chlamydia.

• Taxonomy, morphology, structure, chemical composition and study methods
• Virus-cell relationships and viral replication mechanisms
• Virus genetics
• Virus culture and viral titration
• The mechanism of action and the protective role of interferon and other cytokines in viral infections
• Virus-host interactions; lytic and non-lytic infections
• Cellular transformation and oncogenesis
• Antigenic properties of virions
• Virus transmission and pathogenesis of viral infections
• Virological diagnostics of human diseases
• The classification and mechanism of action of antiviral drugs
• Outline of viral vectors and principles of cellular and gene therapy

DNA viruses: Papillomavirus, Polyomavirus, Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Parvovirus, Poxvirus, Hepadnavirus.
RNA viruses: Picornavirus, Coronavirus, Orthomyxovirus, Paramyxovirus, Pneumovirus, Rhabdovirus, Filovirus, Hepatitis virus (A, C, D, G, E), Reovirus and gastrointestinal viruses, Retrovirus (HTLV, HIV), arthropod-transmitted viruses from rodents: Bunyavirales, Arenaviridae, Togavirus, Flavivirus.

Prions: Structure, Pathogenesis, Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations.

Taxonomy, structure and replication of mycetes, protozoa and metazoa of medical interest. Mechanisms of their pathogenic action. Classification of mycoses, protozoan and metazoan infections and their laboratory diagnosis. Drugs and their mechanism of action. Molecular basis of drug resistance.

Fungi. Superficial and cutaneous mycoses: Tinea, Piedra, Dermatophytosis. Subcutaneous mycoses: Sporotrichosis, Chromoblastomycosis, Feoifomicosis. Systemic mycoses from dimorphic fungi: Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma, Coccidioides). Opportunistic mycoses: Candida albicans and Candida spp, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Criptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Zygomyces, Pneumocystis jirovecii.
Protozoa. Intestinal and urogenital protozoa: Amoebas, Flagellates (Trichomonas, Giardia), Ciliates (Balantidium coli), Coccidi (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli), Microsporidia.
Protozoa of blood and tissues: Plasmodium spp, Hemoflagellates (Tripanosomes, Leishmanie), Babesia, Toxoplasma gondii.
Metazoa. Nematodes, Cestodes, Trematodes.

Practical aspects of immunology applied to microbiology.
Constitutive defenses of the host. General aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. Serological reactions applied to microbiological diagnosis. Serums and vaccines.

Sterilization and disinfection.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The course will begin with the frontal lessons on Bacteriology and Mycology at the end of which the possible on-going assessment will take place. Parasitology and virology lessons will follow. The expected weekly teaching load is 10 hours.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Murray, Patrick R.; Rosenthal, Ken S.; Di_Francesco, Paolo; Angiolella, Letizia, Microbiologia medicaPatrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfalleredizione italiana a cura di Paolo Di FrancescoLetizia Angiolella ... [et al.]. Milano: Edra, Masson, 2013. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Sherris, John C.; Ray, C. George; Ryan, Kenneth J, Sherris Microbiologia medica[editors] Kenneth J. Ryan, C. George Raya cura di Giovanni Batoni ... [et al.]. Roma: EMSI, 2017. Cerca nel catalogo
  • La_Placa, Michele, Principi di microbiologia medicaMichele La Placa. Napoli: EdiSES, 2014, --.
  • Antonelli, Guido, Principi di microbiologia medicaa cura di Guido Antonelli ... [et al.]. Rozzano: Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2017.
  • Jawetz, Ernest; Adelberg, Edward A.; Carroll, Karen C., Jawetz, Melnick, Adelbergʼs Microbiologia medica. Padova: Piccin, 2017.

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Laboratory
  • Active quizzes for Concept Verification Tests and class discussions
  • Use of online videos
  • Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Good Health and Well-Being