
Course unit
LABORATORY OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
SCO2045559, A.A. 2018/19
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2017/18
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Core courses 
CHIM/02 
Physical Chemistry 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
2nd Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Laboratory 
4.0 
48 
52.0 
2 
Lecture 
2.0 
16 
34.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Board 
From 
To 
Members of the board 
1 a.a.2018/19 
20/01/2014 
30/11/2019 
AMENDOLA
VINCENZO
(Presidente)
ANTONELLO
SABRINA
(Membro Effettivo)
DURANTE
CHRISTIAN
(Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites:

Basic knowledge of mathematics, physics, physical chemistry and general chemistry and in particular:
GENERAL AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:
The scientific method. State of aggregation of the matter. Mixtures (homogeneous, heterogeneous) and pure substances. The atomic number and the mass number. Isotopes. Atomic mass unit. Relative atomic mass. Mole. Minimum formula, molecular formula. Oxidation numbers. Chemical balancing. Balancing of nonredox, and redox reactions. The chemical bond: covalent, ionic and metallic. Structure of the atom according to quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation. Pauli exclusion principle. Acid / base properties of oxides. LCAOMO theory for homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Molecular orbitals and HOMOLUMO states. Perfect gas law. Dalton's law. Kinetic theory of gases. MaxwellBoltzmann distribution of molecular velocities. Real gases. Van der Waals equation. Intermolecular interactions. Solid structure.
Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Le Chatelier's principle. Chemical thermodynamics. First and second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs free energy. Criteria for spontaneity of a chemical reaction. Relationship between equilibrium constant and ΔG °.
Equilibrium in solution. Strong and weak electrolytes. Acids and bases. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions. Introduction to phase diagrams p, T for a component. Phase rule. Phase diagrams for twocomponent volatile mixtures. Raoult's law. Distillation. Azeotropic mixtures. Colligative properties. Electrochemistry. Standard reduction potentials. Nernst's equation. The batteries. Electrolysis. Faraday's laws. Overvoltage. Chemical kinetics. The rate and the order of reaction. Activation energy. Arrhenius equation.
MATHEMATICS:
Basics. Real numbers. Inequalities. Elements of trigonometry. Exponentials and logarithms. Summations. Limitations. Continuous functions. Derivatives. A tangent line to the graph of a function. Fundamental theorems of differential calculus. Relative and absolute maxima and minima. Exponential and logarithmic trigonometric functions. Study of a function. Definite integrals. Solid volumes of rotation. Lengths of function graphs. Generalized integrals.
Numerical series. General notions. Taylor and Mac Laurin series.
Differential equations of the first linear order and separable variables. Models described by linear differential equations of the first order. Differential linear secondorder equations with constant coefficients.
Functions of multiple variables. Limitations. Continuity. Partial derivatives. Differentiability. Tangent plans. Level curves. Directional derivative. Gradient vector. Maximum and minimum relative. Saddle points. Maximum and minimum limits.
PHYSICS:
Physical quantities and units of measurement. Work and energy: work of a force, power, kinetic energy, conservative forces, potential energy and conservation of mechanical energy.
inertia principle and force concept, Newton's laws, friction force.
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Principles of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic potentials. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Phase equilibria of pure substances. Thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Ionic solutions. Galvanic cells and their thermodynamic description. Electricity and electric currents. Coulomb's law. Electric field. Electric potential of a charge and a distribution of charges. Electrostatic induction. Conductors. Insulators. Electric currents. Ohm's law. Joule's law. RC circuits. Semiconductors. Electromagnetism. Maxwell equations. Diffraction of light. 
Target skills and knowledge:

Learning of the "experimental method" for the measurement of physical quantities with relative uncertainties.
Direct and indirect measures.
Application of the experimental error propagation theory.
Verification and consolidation of concepts of Thermodynamics (Gibbs free energy, entropy, reaction enthalpy) and Spectroscopy (absorption and fluorescence).
Diffusion of molecular substances in fluid media.
Application of mathematical models for the interpretation of experimental results.
Ability to draw up scientific reports on the work performed. 
Examination methods:

Oral interview on the contents of the classroom lessons on the experiences carried out in the laboratory. The interview will consist of a minimum of two questions about general arguments about lessons, lab experiences and laboratory reports.
The final grade will take into account the results of the interview and the reports on the activity carried out in the laboratory. 
Assessment criteria:

Ability to expose the concepts introduced during the course during the oral examination.
Ability to explain the topics logically during the oral exam.
Ability to draw up scientific reports on laboratory experiences.
Ability to establish logical connections between the different topics covered during the course. 
Course unit contents:

 Lectures:
Introduction to the theory of errors in laboratory measurements.
Outline the use of IT tools for data analysis.
Theory of ionic conductivity in solution.
Diffusion processes in the liquid phase.
Reminder of the UVVis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence emission.
Electrochemical systems and equilibrium thermodynamics, variation of G, H and S related to redox processes.
Illustration of experiences, methodology and instrumentation with particular regard to the processing of experimental data.
 Laboratory experiments:
6 experiences are planned:
Determination of the ionic conductivity of a strong electrolyte in the aqueous phase;
Determination of the diffusion coefficient of a dye molecule in the aqueous phase (via UV / VIS);
Study of phenomena of collisional quenching of fluorescence;
Nanosensor for the colorimetric quantification of a peptide;
Determination of thermodynamic quantities by measurements of emf of a stack;
Determination of thermodynamic quantities by cyclic voltammetry. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Introductory theoretical lectures in the classroom followed by laboratory experiences.
The laboratory experiences consist of both a practical part and a part of data processing carried out with the assistance of a teacher. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Lecture notes for teachers and specialized articles recommended in class.
Textbook as indicated below. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Atkins, P. W.; De_Paula, Julio, Atkins' physical chemistryPeter Atkins, Julio De Paula. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2014.

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Laboratory
 Problem solving
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

