First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SCP3056619, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2017/18

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
IF1839, Degree course structure A.Y. 2011/12, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Biology
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge LUISA GORZA MED/04
Other lecturers ANTONIO ROSATO MED/04

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines MED/04 General Pathology 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 3rd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Lecture 8.0 64 136.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2011 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
ROSATO ANTONIO (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of human Anatomy and Physiology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology is requested.
Target skills and knowledge: The course is composed by two parts, Immunology and Basics in Pathology and Pathophysiology.
The Immunology part will introduce the student to basic mechanisms involved in the immune response. In detail, it will deal with:
- tissue and cell components of the immune system;
- antigen recognition and activation of immune cells
- effectors of the immune response and antigen disposal
At the end of the course the Student should: i) be able to describe the components of the immune system; ii) be able to describe an immune response and recognize the operating immunological mechanisms; iii) be aware of the biotechnological potentialities of immune response manipulation.
The part of Basics in Pathology and Pathophysiology will feature the mechanisms involved in the loss of cellular homeostasis and in the appearance of pathological features at the cell, tissue and system levels. In detail, it will deal with:
- loss of cellular homeostatic control in the presence of lethal and non-lethal stimuli;
- cell and tissue responses to damage (cell stress response, cell death; degenerative or adaptive responses; inflammation, oncogenesis);
- examples of loss of systemic (body or organ) homeostasis following cell and tissue responses to damage, leading to functional impairment and disease.
At the end of the course the student should:
i) describe the basic mechanisms involved in cell and tissue pathology;
ii) describe their contribution to the pathogenesis of selected major human diseases;
ii) be aware about current and possible biotechnological approaches aimed to ameliorate disease diagnosis and therapy.
Examination methods: Written examination (open answer test). The exam will last 2 hours (75 min for Basics in Pathology and Pathophysiology and 45 min for Immunology). The number of the questions are 6 and 3, for Basics in Pathology and Pathophysiology and Immunology, respectively. The final score will correspond to the weighted average of each score.
Assessment criteria: Evaluation will consider student ability to focus on major topics treated during the course and to report them with special attention to their possible biotechnological impact.
Course unit contents: Immunology section (Prof. A Rosato, 2 CFU)
• General overview of the immune system: cells and tissues.
• Innate immunity
• Sensing antigens: Immunoglobulins and T Cell Receptor (TCR)
• Generation of antibodies and TCR diversity
• The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), antigen processing and presentation.
• Antigen detection and lymphocyte activation
• The effector phase of the immune response: the complement system, cytokines, humoral and cellular response.
• Central and peripheral immune tolerance.

Pathology and Pathophysiology Section (Prof. L Gorza, 6 CFU)
- General overview. Etiology and Pathogenesis. Pathology and disease. Stressors and lethal damage. Cell response to stress.
- Adaptive cell/tissue responses. Responses to hypoxia and ischemia. Cell preconditioning. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy. Presentation of representative histopathological features.
- Lethal damage and types of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis. When and how lethal damage follows ischemia-reperfusion.
- Piroptosis: the death of inflammatory cells. Pattern recognition receptors involvement in inflammasome, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The acute and chronic inflammation. Vascular responses and molecules involved in the inflammatory response. Presentation of representative histopathological features.
- Tissue regeneration and repair. Scar and fibrosis. A dysfunction of repatative events: liver cyrrhosis.
- General overview of tumor classification and epidemiology. Tumor biology. Presentation of representative histopathological features. Hallmarks of neoplasia. Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, defective apoptosis, immortalization. Major aspects concerning cancer metabolism, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis. Chemical, physical and viral cancerogenesis.
- Pathophysiology of coagulation. Role of endothelium, platelets, circulating and tissutal factors in major hemorragic and thrombotic diseases. Atherosclerosis: types of lesion and risk factors.
- Pathophysiology of the synthesis of hemoglobin and of red blood cell turnover. Increased hemolysis due to intraglobular and extraglobular defects.
- Pathophysiology of the heart pump: systolic and diastolic failure
- Pathophysiology of the endocrine system. General mechanisms leading to hyper/hypofunctionality.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Regular lectures will be supported by means of Powerpoint projections. Collegial discussions will be performed on several histopatological specimens by means of both general and guided individual inspection from an online histopathological archive and optic microscope, respectively.
Additional notes about suggested reading: Powerpoint files will be available. Some topics will be implemented by selected Reviews.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai, Immunologia cellulare e molecolare. --: Elsevier, --. VIII Edizione Cerca nel catalogo
  • Kumar, Abbas, Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathological basis of disease. --: Elsevier, 2015. IX Edizione Cerca nel catalogo
  • Robbins, Kumar, Klatt, Abbas, Robbins and Cotran - Le basi patologiche delle malattie. --: Edra Masson, 2015. IX Edizione Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Problem based learning
  • Interactive lecturing
  • Questioning
  • Action learning
  • Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)
  • videoprojection of microscopic images from pathological samplesgical

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Good Health and Well-Being