First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Course unit
MVN1028379, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2017/18

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
MV1734, Degree course structure A.Y. 2011/12, A.Y. 2018/19
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit CANNOT be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit is available ONLY for students enrolled in SAFETY AND HYGIENE OF FOOD PRODUCTS

Teacher in charge FRANCESCA CAPOLONGO VET/07
Other lecturers ROBERTA MERLANTI VET/07

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines VET/07 Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology 5.0
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines VET/07 Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology 3.0

Course unit organization
Period Second semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Laboratory 2.0 16 34.0 10
Lecture 6.0 48 102.0 No turn

Start of activities 25/02/2019
End of activities 14/06/2019
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2011 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
8  Commissione a.a. 2019/20 01/12/2019 30/11/2020 CAPOLONGO FRANCESCA (Presidente)
MERLANTI ROBERTA (Membro Effettivo)
7 Commissione a.a. 2018/19 01/12/2018 30/11/2019 CAPOLONGO FRANCESCA (Presidente)
MERLANTI ROBERTA (Membro Effettivo)
6 Commissione a.a. 2017/18 01/12/2017 30/11/2018 CAPOLONGO FRANCESCA (Presidente)
MERLANTI ROBERTA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Required foundation courses: General Chemistry and Principles of Biochemistry; General Physiology and Pathology
Target skills and knowledge: Xenobiotics and risk evaluation (5 ECTS)

One of the goal of the course is to provide to the students the knowledge about the concepts on basic toxicology and toxicokinetics that is propaedeutic to the chemical residues in tissue of animal origin.
Students will be trained to examine and understand the nature and the distinctive characteristics of xenobiotics (for examples drugs and environmental pollutants) and to assess the probability of their occurrence as chemical residues in foodstuffs of animal origin with potential effects on human health. Basic concepts in risk assessment of chemical residues in foodstuffs of animal origin. Panoramic on the Regulation in force in Italy related to veterinary drugs and chemical residues in foodstuff of animal origin.
Another goal is to provide information about RASSF portal, DGSANTE web site and Italian Health Ministry web site.
Monitoring methodologies (3 ECTS)
Students will acquire knowledge of normative aspects and, from a theoretical and practical point of view, they will test some of the analytical methods and control strategies for the detection of residues in biological matrices.
Students will engaged in a Case Study about the definition of the withdrawal time of oxytetracicline administered per os to chicken. At this purpose they will earn skills in: the interpretation of chromatograms obtained by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), the set up of calibration curves, in the calculation of final concentration of the analyte, in the evaluation of the withdrawal time needed to respect MRLs.
Another goal is to provide skill in the use of tools useful to earn information about Books, Scientific Journals as AIRE Portal, AIREgo Portal, CaPeRe, and some database as Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar.

In addition, students in groups of 3-5 will develop insights into satellite topics of the teaching and/or current topics in the food sector, with reference to food safety. It will be considered also the objective n.3 of Agenda 2030 that will developed and applied on the food safety risk management. This activity will be carried out in groups to stimulate the dialectics of each one and the sharing of specific personal skills
Examination methods: Final exam is organised in two part: one on Monitoring methodologies and one on Xenobiotics and risk evaluation.

The first part consists in an oral question on the analytical method procedure and validation. As an alternative, the students attending the course, can choose to take the first part of the exam by means of a multiple choice test in Moodle. The test is composed by 9 questions, it takes 10 minutes. Only one answer is correct.

The second part of the exam is oral and consists of three questions: one on basic toxicology and toxicokinetic, one on risk assessment applied on the chemical residues in foodstuff of animal origin and the last one on the toxicodynamic - toxicokinetic properties, accetable daily intake (ADI) or tolerable daily intake (TDI)of drugs and contaminants in foodstuff of animal origin respect to consumer health.
Assessment criteria: Special consideration will be given to the: ability of appling the knowledge aquired on consumer health; the use of technical terminology and capacity of making cross-links accross the arguments.

The evaluation of the products carried out through the group activities will be done at the end of the teaching semester by illustrating them by the students to the community of the classroom and compiling, by the same collegiality of the students and the teacher, a score sheet
Course unit contents: Xenobiotics and risk evaluation

Introduction and Goals (16 hrs). Xenobiotics nature. Major and minor animal species. Presence of residue of xenobiotics in foodstuffs of animal origin and potential toxic effects on human health.
General pharmacology. General principles of pharmacokinetics. ADME: drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion. Binding of drugs to plasma and/or tissue protein. General principles of pharmacodynamics. General toxicology: acute, sub acute, sub chronic and chronic toxicity. Factors that may affect molecules toxicity. Presence of drug residues in foodstuffs of animal origin and their toxic effects. Target organ toxicity. Allergic reactions. Carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Antimicrobial resistance.

Risk Assessment of chemical residues in foodstuffs of animal origin (8 hrs): NOEL/LOEL, ADI, MRLs. Pharmacokinetic studies in target species to establish the correct withdrawal time.
Regulations in force in Europe/Italy related to veterinary drugs and residues in foodstuffs of animal origin: EC Regulation 470/2009; EC Regulation 37/2010; Legislative Decree n° 158/2006; Legislative Decree n°193/2006; EC Regulation n 508/1999; EC Regulation 1881/2006; EC Regulation 1552/2009.
The National Plan for the research of the residues in Animal products: nature of residues, number of samples, sampling design. Official analytical methods.

Intentional and non intentional xenobiotic residues in foodstuffs of animal origin (8 hrs). General principles of chemotherapy and of the development of antimicrobial resistance. Pharmacological and toxicological characteristics of authorised and non authorised drugs. Illicit drugs as natural and synthetic hormones. Corticosteroids. Thyreostatic substances. Beta-agonists. Residues of drugs and contaminants in honey.

Environmental pollutants (8 hrs). Dioxins. Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB). Metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr). Pesticides. Mycotoxins. Nitrate/nitrite. Polyciclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon PAHs)

Monitoring methodologies

Detection of Residues in foodstuffs of animal origin (8 hrs). Characteristics and validation of analytical methods. Decision UE 2002/657. Purification process of biological matrices. Screening and confirmation methods. General principles and application of spectroscopy, HPLC and immunoenziimatic test (ELISA).

Lab sessions (15 hours). Standard curve set up with a spectophometric method (5 hours). Enzymatic determination of diastase in honey (5 hours). Liquid chromatography procedure to obtain standard curves of caffeine. Depletion study to define the correct withdrawal time of oxytetracicline(5 hours).
Lab sessions (1 hr): Use of web sites and database regarding food safety. Use of tools to find books or journal or references.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: In class teaching.
E-learning activity available on Moodle platform organized in Italian and English video, power point files and self assessment test useful to strengthen laboratory safety guidelines and to introduce baseline concepts on the practical activity of the three laboratory teaching sessions. Another useful tool is the Forum activity organized by e-tutor devoted to solve student questions. Final test on Moodle to verify the practical skills achived by means of the lab session.

Laboratory teaching sessions: execution of laboratory analyses in groups of three students

The practical part is conducted in the laboratory where there is the availability of equipment and basic devices (micropipettes, technical and analytical balances, pH-meter, thermostatic bath, centrifuge, spectrophotometer, High pressure Liquid Chromatography). The practical activity of calculation applied to analytical chemistry is carried out in the laboratory during the practical activities.

The attendance at the practical activity performed in the laboratory is mandatory with frequency detection by the teacher.

Team working in order to develop soft skills.
Attendance to the practical session is mandatory
Additional notes about suggested reading: Material, Articles, and Slides will be provided on the Moodle platform

Book suggested are available in the local library in Viale Margherita in Vicenza.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Klassen Curtis D, Casarett and Doull's Toxicology - The basic science of the poisons. --: Mcgraw-Hill Pub, 2007. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Nebbia Carlo (a cura di), Residui di farmaci e contaminanti ambientali nelle produzioni animali. --: EDISES, 2009. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Dugo, Giovanni; Restani, Patrizia; Capuano, Alice, Tossicologia degli alimenti\a cura di! Alice Capuano, Giovanni Dugo, Patrizia Restani. Torino: UTET, --. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Laboratory
  • Case study
  • Working in group
  • Problem solving
  • Auto correcting quizzes or tests for periodic feedback or exams
  • Use of online videos
  • Students peer review

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)
  • Kaltura (desktop video shooting, file loading on MyMedia Unipd)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Good Health and Well-Being