First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Course unit
AVP7080746, A.A. 2019/20

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2017/18

Information on the course unit
Degree course 5 years single cycle degree in
MV0991, Degree course structure A.Y. 2017/18, A.Y. 2019/20
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 6.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination CLINICS IN REPRODUCTION
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit CANNOT be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit is available ONLY for students enrolled in VETERINARY MEDICINE (Ord. 2017)

Teacher in charge STEFANO ROMAGNOLI VET/10
Other lecturers MARIA ELENA FALOMO VET/10

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses VET/10 Clinical Veterinary Obstetrics and Gynaecology 6.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 5th Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Practice 1.0 10 15.0 3
Lecture 5.0 50 75.0 No turn

Start of activities 30/09/2019
End of activities 18/01/2020
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2017 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
1 Commissione a.a. 2019/20 01/12/2019 30/11/2020 ROMAGNOLI STEFANO (Presidente)
FALOMO MARIA ELENA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: Students are expected to have a sound understanding of anatomy and physiology of gonadal function as well as of physiology of the reproductive cycle of all domestic species, exotic companion and wild animals.
Target skills and knowledge: Students are expected to learn the basics of management of the reproductive cycle, the technique of artificial insemination, reproductive biotechnologies (such as embryo transfer and embryo-gamete manipulation) as well as how to identify and treat the most common reproductive diseases of food animals and horses. Furthermore, relative to small animals they will be expected to know how to a) monitor and control the reproductive cycle, b) perform artificial insemination and c) diagnose and treat the most common diseases of the reproductive tract
Examination methods: The final exam will consist of a practical part (in which students will be expected to demonstrate procedures learnt during small animal and food animal practical labs), a written part (multiple choice and short assay type quizzes) and an oral part. There will be only one written part to be done for all the species together, while each section of the practical and oral exams will be conducted separately according to species. The score will be composed as follows: 5% practical part on small animals; 5% practical part on bovine; 20% exam on equine, 35% exam on small animals; 35% exam on food animals. The score on small animals will be compounded with a maximum of an extra 3 points which may be gained by finding the correct solution to the clinical cases presented during the Flipped Classrooms (see over). Each part is fundamental for passing the exam; students failing one practical part, or the written part or one of the oral parts will have to repeat the part which is insufficient. Sections of the exam already satisfactorily passed will be kept as valid until the following exam session, after which the exam will have to be repeated fully.
Assessment criteria: Students will be evaluated relative to their theoretical knowledge but also with regard to their ability to solve the most common practical problems encountered in daily clinical practice (which will be dealt with in class)
Course unit contents: FOOD ANIMALS
Pharmacologic manipulation of the reproductive cycle in bovines.
Repeat Breeder syndrome
Reproductive health management programs
Bovine infertility: a herd health approach
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Bovids
ART in small ruminants and camelids
ART in swine

Management of transition phase
Management of cyclicity during the reproductive season
Induction of ovulation

The small animal module of this course will be taught entirely in English and will be organized using the so called “Flipped Classroom Approach”, an active learning technique through which students in class are actively engaged in doing group work while the teacher supervises their work. At the beginning of the course the following material will be available online:

A)Powerpoint presentations on the following lectures which will be presented during the course
1. Course introduction; interpretation of vaginal cytology serum P4, vaginal endoscopy; endocrine correlates of reproductive cycles in bitches/queens; clinical cases of breeding management; diagnosing pregnancy with US; P4 in pregnancy
2. Clinical cases of Pregnancy & Pseudopregnancy, pregnancy complications, dystocia; decision criteria for performing a C-section
3. Neonatology: images of normal and abnormal neonates; videos on neonatal resuscitation, oro-gastric feeding, intraosseous fluid administration; interpretation of clinical and laboratory signs; images of postpartum maternal conditions (uterine prolapse etc.), decision criteria for treating mammary tumors
4. Estradiol-related conditions – differential diagnosis of prolonged estrus; clinical cases of vaginal prolapse; P4-related conditions – physiopathology of pyometra; use of myocontractant drugs; clinical cases; relationships between P4 and GH, development of diabetes; clinical case of feline mammary hyperplasia
5. Infertility in the bitch and queen – how to collect history, diagnostic algorythm for canine infertility, infectious causes, breeding management, behavioral problems
6. Neutering-related conditions – what to remove and when during reproductive life; examples of disadvantages of castration; clinical cases of heat after neutering; pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, clinical case examples
7. Andrology – videos on semen collection in dogs and cats, on intravaginal and intrauterine artificial insemination in dogs; on semen evaluation; infertility in the male; videos on prostatic fine needle aspiration;
8. Physiopathology on prostatic hypertrophy; testicular diseases; use of human and veterinary drugs for the treatment of these conditions

B) Word file: Small Animal Reproduction Notes

The Small Animal Reproduction module consists also of the following seminars (which will be held in Italian):
- Practical aspects on the control of free roaming animals in shelters (Dr. Aldo Costa, State Veterinary Officer Region of Veneto)
- Practical aspects of reproduction and reproductive peculiarities of canine and feline breeds (Dr. Anna Lorenzon, private veterinary practitioner, Venice, Italy)
- The veterinarian as a self-entrepreneur: client communication in a small animal clinic (Dr. Stefano Mori, private veterinary practitioner, Livorno, Italy)

Also, one full morning of practical, hand-on activities will be organized at the Municipal Shelter of Selvazzano (Padova) where groups of 8-10 students will be able to perform non invasive procedures including the andrological exam and gynecological exam in small animals
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The small animal part of the course will start with 8 classical type lectures on the above topics 1 through 8. These lectures will not be a formal description of each condition (physiopathology, clinical signs, treatment etc.). Instead, mnemonic issues will be skipped and attention will be given to practical issues of each disease showing pictures and videos of clinical cases, clinical procedures, drug reactions etc. Time saved in avoiding to discuss what students can study directly on class notes will be used during the second part of the course to organize a few Flipped Classroom sessions which will be dedicated to solving clinical cases. Clinical cases will be distributed at the beginning of the course. On the day of the Flipped Classroon questions on each case will be distributed and students will have to answer the questions working in groups of 4 (each Tirocinio group will work together) both in class as well as at home during the next few days. The file with the correct answers will have to be sent to the teacher normally within 7 days. At the first lecture after the 7-day deadline each case will be presented by a group of students and during the following discussion the teacher will give the solution to the cases. Once the solution to etach case will have been presented, each group of students will be able to assing itself a score bu comparing their proposed solution with the correct solution provided by the teacher.
Having identified the correct solution of each case will allow students to gain up to a maximum of 3 points which will be added to the score of the small animal part of the exam.
The last 2-3 lectures will be dedicated to students’ presentations. Each Tirocinio Group will have to present a clinical case of reproduction (ideally small animal, but also exotics or equine/ruminant cases are accepted) in front of the entire class using a PC (with powerpoint, prezi or any other presentation-type program). Such case could be a case which students have seen during their practical training, or a case found in the literature or even a case made up on purpose and describe in details history, presentation, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnostic process, treatment and follow-up. The presentation of the case will account for 0.5 of the 3 extra points.
Additional notes about suggested reading: A set of Class Notes (written in italian by all teachers of the Reproduction group in 2008) is available for download, which features a great deal of theoretical information. Students should be aware of the fact that this set of Class Notes has not been updates since 2008 and therefore, although useful, it is incomplete and IT IS NOT SUFFICIENT to pass the exam. The textbooks listed below are fundamental for a sound preparation allowing the student to pass the final exam
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Youngquist RS, Threlfall WR, Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology 2. New York, USA: Elsevier, 2007. Cerca nel catalogo
  • England G, Von Heimendhal A, BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and Neonatology. Birmingham, UK: BSAVA, 2010. Cerca nel catalogo
  • McKinnon AO, Voss,, Equine Reproduction. Philadelphia, USA: Williams and Wilkins, 1995. Cerca nel catalogo

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Problem based learning
  • Interactive lecturing
  • Working in group
  • Flipped classroom