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Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SC16106130, A.A. 2017/18

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2016/17

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
SC1161, Degree course structure A.Y. 2008/09, A.Y. 2017/18
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 8.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination MINERALOGY
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Biology
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge GABRIELLA SALVIULO GEO/06

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses GEO/06 Mineralogy 8.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Practice 1.0 12 13.0 3
Laboratory 2.0 32 18.0 4
Lecture 5.0 40 85.0 No turn

Start of activities 02/10/2017
End of activities 19/01/2018
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2008 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
7 MINERALOGIA 2018-2019 01/10/2018 30/11/2019 SALVIULO GABRIELLA (Presidente)
VALENTINI LUCA (Membro Effettivo)
6 MINERALOGIA 2017/2018 01/10/2017 25/11/2018 SALVIULO GABRIELLA (Presidente)
5 MINERALOGIA 2016-2017 01/10/2016 30/11/2017 SALVIULO GABRIELLA (Presidente)

Prerequisites: Knowledge gained from the courses:Mathematics with elements of Statistics , General and Inorganic Chemistry , Physics
Target skills and knowledge: This course provides an introduction to the physical, chemical and optical properties of minerals.
The course also aims to provide students with the knowledge of the basic principles of the main analytical methods for the identification of the crystalline phases.

At the end of the course students will have acquired the knowledge and skills for the identification of minerals.
Examination methods: Grades will be oral and based with open questions, identification of symmetry elements and morphological description of models of crystals, description of physical properties of an hand specimen mineral and its identification.
A full day of discussion and review witnessed the entire course program is always organized before each exam session session, with the aim of facilitate the preparation of the students.
Assessment criteria: The assessment of the preparation of the student will be based both on an understanding of the arguments, on the acquisition of concepts and methodologies proposed that the ability to apply them in an autonomous and aware .
Course unit contents: Principles of crystallography: the lattice translation, concept and knit unit cell, crystallographic axes, indices of a face, elements of point symmetry, the seven crystal systems and 32 classes of symmetry;i Reticoli di Bravais. Examples of the main crystal structures. Exercises description of the symmetry of a crystal with stereographic projection.
Crystal chemistry: the lithosphere composition and abundance of the elements; polyhedra and coordination numbers; Pauling rules. Isomorphism and solid solutions; polymorphism.
The physical properties of minerals and relations with the crystal chemistry: dress, specific gravity, hardness, fracture and cleavage, luster, color, reactivity with acids, magnetism, radioactivity.
Systematic mineralogy: composition, structure and physical characteristics of the most common minerals of the classes of carbonates and silicates (nesosilicates, sorosilicates, cyclosilicates, inosilicates, phyllosilicates, tectosilicates) and relevant notes the following classes: native elements, sulfides, halides, oxides and hydroxides, sulphates, phosphates. Laboratory of hand specimen identification of minerals.
Optical properties: general light waves; visible spectrum; polarized light; reflection and refraction; methods to obtain monochromatic light; double refraction and birefringence; surface wave and surface indices; colors of interference; Optic indicatrix , optical orientation in different crystal systems. Methods of measurement of refractive indices, and observation of crystals with polarized light microscopy, in parallel light and conoscopy (notes).
Theory of X-ray diffraction by crystals: nature and properties of X-ray; interactions between radiation and crystal; Bragg equation. The powder method and the diffractometer; single crystal methods (outline); spectrometric techniques: fluorescence and electron microprobe. Scanning electron microscopy. Examples of calculation of crystal chemical formulae.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Lectures
Tutorials morphological crystallography
Laboratory of hand specimen identification of minerals
The subjects of exercises and labs are always introduced by the teacher. The educational path to follow is exposed; then the students are stimulated to work individually or in small groups, depending on their preference, and then to discuss with the teachers.
Additional notes about suggested reading: In addition to the reference text and to a greater depth in the study suggests the possible consultation of the following books and teaching materials :
Guastoni, Appiani: Tutto Minerali, ed. Mondadori
FD Bloss: An introduction to the methods of optical crystallography. Ed Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Mottana, Crespi, Liborio: Minerali e Rocce, Ed. Mondadori
Notes from lectures.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Klein Cornelis, Mineralogia. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2012. Cerca nel catalogo