
Course unit
THERMODYNAMICS
SCL1000346, A.A. 2018/19
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2016/17
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/01 
Experimental Physics 
3.0 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/03 
Material Physics 
3.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
3rd Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Practice 
2.0 
16 
34.0 
No turn 
Lecture 
4.0 
32 
68.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Board 
From 
To 
Members of the board 
10 Termodinamica 
01/10/2018 
30/11/2019 
PIERNO
MATTEO AMBROGIO PAOLO
(Presidente)
MISTURA
GIAMPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
CARNERA
ALBERTO
(Supplente)

9 Termodinamica 
01/10/2017 
30/11/2018 
PIERNO
MATTEO AMBROGIO PAOLO
(Presidente)
MISTURA
GIAMPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
CARNERA
ALBERTO
(Supplente)

Prerequisites:

Maths: multivariable differential calculus, elements of linear algebra
Physics: Newtonian Mechanics, electromagnetism, elements of Statistical and Quantum Mechanics
Chemical Physics: fundamentals of chemical reactions and chemical equilibrium, kinetic theory of gases. 
Target skills and knowledge:

MAJOR OUTCOMES:
i) Principles of thermodynamics and the fundamental equation;
ii) measure of the entropy, properties of (real) gases, phase transitions, corresponding law and other universal scalings.
iii) Thermodynamic changes subject to external fields;
iv) Non equilibrium configurations and processes;
v) Interference between different processes near thermodynamic equilibrium;
vi) Stationary states and their coupling;
vii) Generalized flow and forces; linearità and applications.
SKILLS:
 linking different parts of the course one each other;
 solve both closed and openended problems in Thermodynamics topics;
 critical knowledge of the approximations made throughout the derivations of the thermodynamic relations
 critical comparison between experiments and theoretical relations 
Examination methods:

Colloquium focused on the program topics. 
Assessment criteria:

i) Approach in problem solving a general problem
ii) Communication skills (clarity, completeness, synthesis, appropriateness etc.) when reporting a specific topic 
Course unit contents:

CLASS OUTLINE
PART I: Thermodynamics of equilibrium states
 Macroscopic and microscopic systems.
 Isolated and interacting systems.
 Equilibrium states.
 Thermal equilibriumZero principle and the definition of empirical temperature.
 Adiabatic systems; closed systems.
 First Principle and the definition of energy (U) and of quantity of heat (Q).
 Second Principle: Entropy and Temperature.
 The approximation of discontinuous systems.
 Engines and maximum efficiency.
 The fundamental equation of Thermodynamics for closed systems and its generalization to open systems with chemical reactions.
 Thermodynamic potentials F, H, G, μ .
 The problem of the stability of equilibrium states.
 General relations; Maxwell relations.
 Definition of the coefficients of thermal expansion, of isothermal and adiabatic compressibility
 Definition of Cp and Cv and the relation between them.
 The measurement of the Entropy.
 Third Principle.
 The properties of gases; experimental evidence on the first virial coefficient and the measurement of T.
 Adiabatic equations the JouleThompson coefficient.
 The van der Waals equation.
 Phase transitions and Clapeyron equation. Triple points.
 The law of corresponding states.
 On the thermodynamics of the surface layers.
 Thermodynamics in the presence of external fields (electric or magnetic fields).
 Thermodynamics of equilibrium radiation fields.
PART II: Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
 The approximation of discontinuous systems. The entropy production in closed and in open systems.
 Chemical reactions: Affinity and velocity.
 Generalizes fluxes and forces. The interference among irreversible processes.
 Linear relations between fluxes and forces and the Onsager relations.
 The fluctuations in an equilibrium state. The dacay of fluctuations as a case of linear irreversible processes.
 Electrokinetic effects; thermomechanical effects, heat of transfer and thermomolecular pressure difference. The case of Knudsen gases.
 Stationary states. Minimum entropy production and the stability of nonequilibrium stationary states.
 Stationary states coupling.
 Some discussion on nonlinear irreversible processes.
PART III: Thermodynamics in continuous systems
 Local thermal equilibrium. New formulation of the energy and entropy equations in continuous systems.
 The Entropy production per unit volume. Generalized fluxes and forces.
 Einstein relation between diffusion coefficient and mobility. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

• Room classes
• Group Discussion TeacherStudents for problem solving,
• Individual discussions for corrections, clarifications, etc.
• Demos, Movies, VideoAnimations. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Textbooks and reviews on Thermodynamics are really countless, not only in Physics.
For the fundamentals it is recommended to start by the the class handouts. On the other side, for the application it is suggested to browse the references therein, including multimedia applets. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Guggenheim, Edward Armand, Thermodynamicsan advanced treatment for chemists and physicistsby E. A. Guggenheim. Amsterdam: NorthHolland, 1967.

Prigogine, Ilya, Introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processesby I. Prigogine. New York: London, John Wiley, .

Callen, Herbert, Thermodynamicsan introduction to the physical theories of equilibrium thermostatics and irreversible thermodynamicsHerbert B. Callen. New York [etc.]: Wiley, .

Saggion, Antonio; Pierno, Matteo; Faraldo Rossella, Principles of Thermodynamics. : , . Handouts of the classes. Delivered via Moodle platform


