
Course unit
DYNAMIC OF POLLUTTANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
SC01122842, A.A. 2018/19
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2016/17
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
CHIM/01 
Analytical Chemistry 
4.0 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
CHIM/02 
Physical Chemistry 
2.0 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
CHIM/03 
General and Inorganic Chemistry 
2.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
Second semester 
Year 
3rd Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
8.0 
64 
136.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Examination board not defined
Prerequisites:

Knowledge about basic mathematical concepts (vector and matrix calculus, ordinary derivatives, partial derivatives of multivariate functions, integration) and equilibrium Thermodynamics should have gained from previous courses. The essential concepts are however recalled in the first part of the course. 
Target skills and knowledge:

The main objective is to let the student aware that the description of pollutants dynamics in the environment requires a quantitative analysis which starts from a simplification of the real problem (complex and untreatable in detail), goes through the theoretical modelling of the simplified problem (buildup and parameterization of equations), and ends with the numerical treatment by means of suitable computational tools. The student will acquire critical view and sensitivity to select the suitable approach. Furthermore, the student will be also able to face scientific publications, having acquired the conventional terminology. 
Examination methods:

Oral examination standing at the blackboard. The questions regard each of the thematic blocks that constitute the program of the course: thermodynamics of partition and chemical kinetics; local dispersion of the pollutants in the various phases; longrange transport of pollutants. 
Assessment criteria:

Concise exposition with rigorous scientific language is requested to the student. Positive evaluation will be given to students able to tackle pollutants dynamics with a quantitative approach, going beyond the mere qualitative description. When a practical problem is posed, the student should be able to demonstrate capability to recognize those essential traits which are needed to build a likely theoretical model to describe the physical situation. 
Course unit contents:

 Essentials of equilibrium Thermodynamics
 Equilibrium partitioning of chemical species among several phasescompartments: air, aerosol, water, suspension in water, aquatic biota, sediments, soil, terrestrial biota. Partition coefficients.
 Essentials of chemical kinetics: reaction velocity, kinetic law, reaction mechanism, Arrhenius law.
 Intercompartment transfer. Mass balance, Mackay’s classification (three levels of complexity). Exercises.
 Introduction to the pollutant transport in the single compartment. Classification of the dynamical processes: advection, local dynamics (molecular diffusion, turbulence, hydrodynamic dispersion), reactive processes, sourcesink terms. Definition of flux of matter. Mathematical buildup of the AdvectionDiffusionReaction (ADR) equation for the time evolution of the pollutant's concentration field.
 Local transport due to molecular diffusion. Description on statistical basis (Brownian motion) and nonequilibrium thermodynamics view. Buildup of the diffusion equation. Analitical solution for unbounded diffusion in homogeneus and isotropic media. Relation between diffusion coefficients and root mean squared displacements of molecules. Diffusion in liquids, link between diffusion coefficients and viscous friction, StokesEinstein relation. Diffusion in the gas phase.
 Turbolence in fluid media. Phenomenology of eddies, essentials of Kolmogorov theory. Turbolence in the planetary boundary layer. Effect of turbulence on pollutants transport, the related diffusivelike contribution in the ADR equation. Eddy diffusion coefficients, their experimental determination and theoretical modelling. Prandtl relation. Models for vertical dispersion in air. Turbolence and shear dispersion in surface water (oceans, bays, lakes, rivers, etc). Essentials of the Gaussian Plume Models in air. Detailed numerical treatment of vertical dispersion in air. Exercises.
 Dispersion in groundwater. Properties of saturated and unsaturated zones, aquifers. Pressure head, hydraulic head. Darcy law for water flux. Permeability. Hydrodynamic dispersion of pollutants. Retardation factor due to the partirtioning among soil, water and air. Exercises.
 Weigth of the several contributions to the ADR equation. Peclet and Damkoehler numbers. Matching at the interfaces.
 Pollutants transport on the long legthscale. Essentials of fluid dynamics, NavierStokes equations, tools for their numerical solution, finiteelements schemes. Model of transport in air, atmospheric circulation, winds. Mention to software packages of broad usage and demonstrations. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

The course is developed with a close alternation of lectures on the main concepts and related exercises. The lectures are given with the help of slides previously uploaded in the webpage of the teacher of reference. Numerical exercises and examples are made to facilitate the understanding of the formal issues, and to stimulate the students. Some exercises are made in a computer room with a PC at disposal per each student. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Aside the suggested textbooks for insights, the bulk of contents is entirely provided by the slides prepared by the teachers. Although inspired by existing textbooks, the presentation reflects the teacher's point of view on the matter, and is meant to provide a rigorous, formal and selfcontained frame of the subjects. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Anu Ramaswami, Jana B. Milford, Mitchell J. Small, Integrated Environmental Modeling  Pollutant Transport, Fate, and Risk in the Environment. Hoboken (New Jersey): Wiley, 2005. Monografia per approfondimenti.

John S. Gilliver, Introduction to Chemical Transport in the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Per approfondimenti sui metodi matematici e numerici

Donald Mackay, Multimedia Environmental Models  The fugacity Approach (2nd Ed.). : CRC Press  Taylor & Francis Group, 2001. Tratta gli aspetti termodinamici delle fasi e lo scambio tra compartimenti

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
 Lecturing
 Case study
 Working in group
 Active quizzes for Concept Verification Tests and class discussions
 Loading of files and pages (web pages, Moodle, ...)
Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

