First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Medicine
Course unit
DRUG ANALYSIS 2 (Iniziali cognome A-L)
MEP3051759, A.A. 2018/19

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2015/16

Information on the course unit
Degree course 5 years single cycle degree in
PHARMACY (Ord. 2009)
FA1732, Degree course structure A.Y. 2009/10, A.Y. 2018/19
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 12.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination DRUG ANALYSIS 2
Department of reference Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences
E-Learning website
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit CANNOT be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit is available ONLY for students enrolled in PHARMACY (Ord. 2009)

Teacher in charge LISA DALLA VIA CHIM/08
Other lecturers ANDREA MATTAREI CHIM/08

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses CHIM/08 Pharmaceutical Chemistry 12.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 4th Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
Hours of
Individual study
Laboratory 4.0 60 40.0 No turn
Lecture 8.0 64 136.0 No turn

Start of activities 01/10/2018
End of activities 18/01/2019
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2018 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
10 Commissione a.a. 2019/20 02/12/2019 30/09/2020 MATTAREI ANDREA (Presidente)
SOSIC ALICE (Membro Effettivo)
9 Commissione a.a. 2018/19 (A-L) 03/12/2018 25/11/2019 DALLA VIA LISA (Presidente)
MATTAREI ANDREA (Membro Effettivo)

Prerequisites: The student must possess an adequate cultural background that includes knowledge of:
- General and inorganic chemistry and stoichiometry, in particular chemical equilibria in solution, solubility, buffer solutions, pH and indicators, acid-base, chelating and red-ox reactions.
- Organic chemistry, in particular the most important organic solvents, solubility of organic compounds, transformation reactions and functional groups.
- Qualitative instrumental analysis, in particular the basic theoretical principles of the most common techniques (IR, UV-Vis, fluorimetry and chromatographic techniques).
- Basic statistical principles.
- Laboratory safety.
It is mandatory to have passed the Drug Analysis 1 and Analytical Chemistry with Elements of Statistics exams. To access the laboratory, the student must have attended the laboratory of the Drug Analysis 1 course.
Target skills and knowledge: The course of Drug Analysis 2 aims at providing students with the theoretical and practical tools to carry out quantitative analyses of the active principles described or not in the Official Italian Pharmacopoeia (FUI), both raw materials and in solid (e.g. tablets) and liquid (e.g. solutions) pharmaceutical forms. In the first case, the analyses are aimed at verifying the purity of the raw material used in the preparation of the drugs, in the second, the quantity of active principle declared in the pharmaceutical preparation. The student will be able to carry out quantitative chemical analyses i.e. to prepare and to standardize solutions for the different types of titration reactions, to make quantitative determinations, to use precisely manufactured glassware. Moreover, they will be able to acquire skills in the calculations that lead to the final result by applying the theoretical concepts of statistical data processing and to evaluate the final result in a critical way. Furthermore, the student, supported by the specific theoretical concepts, will be able to carry out determinations of compounds of pharmaceutical interest by means of various instrumental techniques and above all, to apply different methods of analysis both of general (calibration curve) and specific type (application of Lambert-Beer Law). In summary, students will be able to use the main laboratory techniques and to apply, with a critical approach, the most suitable analytical procedures for an accurate and precise quantitative chemical analysis.
Examination methods: The exam is divided into two parts.
The first part consists of a written test on analytical problem solving such as the determination of the concentration of a reagent by titration or the chemical concentration of a pharmaceutical principle, either through volumetric titration, or by applying the Lambert-Beer Law. A positive outcome (valid for all the subsequent sessions), is mandatory for the admission to the second part.
The second part of the exam consists of a written test with open questions covering both the titrations and the principles and applications of the instrumentation, treated during the course.
Assessment criteria: The assessment of the student's preparation will be based on the understanding of the topics, the acquisition of the chemical and analytical concepts and methodologies and the ability to apply them to the quantitative chemical determination of drugs in a logical and autonomous manner.
The practical part will be evaluated on the basis of the individual and group tests carried out during the attendance to the laboratory. A written report must be prepared, reporting both individual and group laboratory exercises, describing the performed procedures and calculations . The reports will be evaluated along with the final exam.
Course unit contents: The course of Drug Analysis 2 (quantitative analysis) aims at providing students with the theoretical and operational tools to perform quantitative chemical analysis involved in several categories such as basic research, biotechnology, food control, clinical chemistry, agriculture, materials science and more.
Analytical chemistry, in fact, covers important aspects in many fields and is essential for students to understand the analytical techniques both basic (titration, dosages, calculations) and of more recent conception (spectrofluorimetry, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis).
The main topics of the quantitative chemical analysis concern in particular with the titrations, the preparation and standardization of reagents, the quantitative chemical calculations of compounds, metals and drugs registered in the FUI. Particular attention is devoted to the chemical reactions involved in the titrations and to the quantitative aspects that comes from them (stoichiometric coefficients, molar ratios between reagent and analyte).
The instrumental part is mainly dedicated to the explanation of the methods of analysis and their application in pharmaceutical analysis, while the different instrumentations and the theoretical principles of their functioning are treated in a way focused at the quantitative analysis.
It is also essential to provide the student with the criteria to correctly choose a method of analysis and evaluate the obtained experimental results.
It should be noted that both individual and group laboratory exercises, are meant to offer appropriate examples of the most important analytical techniques, with the aim of stimulating the critical and organizational aspect necessary to carry out the analysis.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: The course consists of 64 hours of frontal lessons and 60 hours of individual and group laboratory exercises.
(a) Frontal lessons
Frontal lessons include the use of slides explained in detail, recalling, if necessary, notions of the propaedeutic courses. Whenever possible, theoretical lessons take place in parallel with laboratory exercises so that students can compare the experimental experience with theory. The theoretical part of the course is set according to a scheme that, starting from the basic concepts, leads progressively, through the concept of titration of an active principle according to FUI, to more complex approaches, such as the external and internal standard methods in a calibration curve applied to the most advanced instrumental techniques. During the course, problem solving are also carried out with the participation of the students.
(b) Laboratory exercises
The laboratory exercises are carried out daily, by dividing the students into groups. Some lessons describing the practical arrangements and theoretical explanations to perform correctly the chemical titrations and instrumental analyses are provided before laboratory exercises. Each student has a personal workstation and the necessary equipment (glassware, instrumentation, etc.). The students are engaged for about 3.5 hours a day, time sufficient to carry out the planned experience. The students are watched by both the teacher and technicians for the correct use of the instrumentation and for the execution of the analyses. At the beginning of the exercises, to each student an "exercises guide" is given, describing in detail the procedures to be followed for both the titrations and instrumental parts of the exercises.
The preparation of the titration reagents, the titrations and the relative quantitative determinations are carried out individually and the student must prepare a complete report of the calculations performed in order to reach the required result.
Instrumental determinations are carried out in groups of 2-3 or 5-6 students. Each group presents a detailed report of all analysis performed.
After correction, all the reports are returned to the students. Students are encouraged to keep, as a good laboratory practice, a "laboratory notebook" in which they can record any observations useful for carrying out the analysis and its possible repetition, and in particular, the calculations.
The laboratory exercises aims to provide to the students the analytical methods required to carry out analyses of pharmaceutical principles, and to introduce the student into the complex world of pharmaceutical analysis.
Additional notes about suggested reading: To support teaching, slides of the lessons are published on the University's Moodle platform (

The following texts are recommended.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana, XI Edizione, Commissione permanente per la revisione e la pubblicazione della Farmacopea Ufficiale,. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, --. di consultazione Cerca nel catalogo
  • D.C. Harris, Chimica Analitica Quantitativa. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2012. di studio Cerca nel catalogo
  • D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, F.J. Holler, S. R. Crouch, Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica. Napoli: EdiSES, 2009. di studio Cerca nel catalogo
  • R. Cozzi, P. Protti, T. Ruaro, Analisi Chimica: Moderni Metodi Strumentali. Bologna: Zanichelli, --. di consultazione Cerca nel catalogo
  • O. Gia, M.G. Ferlin, Esercizi svolti di Analisi dei Medicinali 2. --: --, --. di consultazione

Innovative teaching methods: Teaching and learning strategies
  • Lecturing
  • Laboratory
  • Interactive lecturing
  • Working in group
  • Questioning
  • Problem solving
  • Active quizzes for Concept Verification Tests and class discussions

Innovative teaching methods: Software or applications used
  • Moodle (files, quizzes, workshops, ...)

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