
Course unit
ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS
SCO2045482, A.A. 2015/16
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2014/15
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines 
FIS/02 
Theoretical Physics, Mathematical Models and Methods 
6.0 
Course unit organization
Period 
First semester 
Year 
2nd Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Type of hours 
Credits 
Teaching hours 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Examination board
Board 
From 
To 
Members of the board 
7 Fisica Astroparticellare 
01/10/2018 
30/11/2019 
PARADISI
PARIDE
(Presidente)
MASTROLIA
PIERPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
MATARRESE
SABINO
(Supplente)

6 Fisica Astroparticellare 
01/10/2017 
30/11/2018 
PARADISI
PARIDE
(Presidente)
MASTROLIA
PIERPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
MATARRESE
SABINO
(Supplente)

5 Fisica Astroparticellare 
01/10/2016 
30/09/2017 
PARADISI
PARIDE
(Presidente)
MASTROLIA
PIERPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
MATARRESE
SABINO
(Supplente)

4 Fisica Astroparticellare 
01/10/2015 
30/09/2016 
PARADISI
PARIDE
(Presidente)
MASTROLIA
PIERPAOLO
(Membro Effettivo)
MATARRESE
SABINO
(Supplente)

Prerequisites:

The course is selfcontained as the necessary basics of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and general relativity will be provided during the course. 
Target skills and knowledge:

A full understanding of the earliest stages of our Universe during the first seconds after the Big Bang, requires not only a knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics but also of elementary particle physics. The aim of the course is to provide a marriage of these disciplines through an introduction of the Standard Models for cosmology and elementary particles. 
Examination methods:

Oral exam. 
Assessment criteria:

The evaluation of the oral examination will be based on the degree of understanding of the topics covered in class and on the ability to expose them in a logical and coherent way. 
Course unit contents:

1) INTRODUCTION: the observable Universe and its expansion, Dark Matter, the leftovers from the Big Bang.
2) RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS: Dirac and KleinGordon Equations; nonrelativistic correspondence; antiparticles and their properties; discrete symmetries: P, T, and C and the CPT theorem.
3) QUANTUM FIELD THEORY: the KleinGordon, electromagnetic and Dirac fields; spinstatistics connection;
Noether's theorem; the energymomenta tensor; radiationmatter interaction: covariant derivative and QED; scattering theory: Smatrix, Green functions, propagators, Feynman rules, crosssections and decay rates.
4) SPONTANEOUS SYMMETRY BREAKING (SSB): SSB of discrete and continuous global symmetries; Goldstone theorem; SSB of continuous local symmetries: the Higgs mechanism; SSB at finite temperature.
5) THE STANDARD MODEL (SM) OF PARTICLE PHYSICS: Fermi theory; (VA) x (VA) theory; YangMills theory; the standard electroweak theory; SSB of the electroweak symmetry; mass spectrum and particle interactions; CKM matrix; GIM mechanism; CP violation; flavor group of the SM: baryon and lepton (family) number conservation; the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC.
6) NEUTRINO PHYSICS: Dirac and Majorana masses; seesaw mechanism; massive neutrinos in the SM; PMNS matrix; GIM mechanism and the mu>e gamma decay rate; neutrinoless double betadecay; neutrino oscillation in the vacuum and matter: the MSW effect; solar and atmospheric neutrinos; CP violation in neutrino physics; neutrino oscillation experiments; neutrinos from Supernovae.
7) BEYOND THE SM: Grand Unified Theories (GUTs); SU(5) model: SSB and Gauge hierarchy, coupling constant unification, proton decay, fermion masses and mixing angles; SO(10) and the seesaw mechanism.
8) GENERAL RELATIVITY: the Equivalence Principle; curved spacetime, the energymomentum tensor; Einstein's equations of Gravitation, the Schwarzschild solution.
9) COSMOLOGICAL MODELS: the de Sitter model; the Standard Model of Cosmology, FLRW metric, Friedmann equations; the Cosmological Constant.
10) THERMODYNAMICS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: equilibrium thermodynamics; entropy; decoupling temperatures.
11) DARK MATTER (DM): experimental evidences; freezeout and DM; the Boltzmann equation; cold, hot and warm DM; Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs); DM Candidates in Particle Physics; cosmological bounds on neutrino masses; direct and inderect searches of DM.
12) INFLATION: problems of the Standard Big Bang model, the horizon problem, the flatness problem, the monopole problem; the Inflation mechanism; quantum fluctuations of the Inflaton; models for Inflation; Dark Energy.
13) BARYOGENESIS: Sakharov conditions; baryon (B) and lepton (L) numbers violation in particle interactions; B and L violation in the SM via anomalies; BL conservation in the SM; electroweak mechanism; B violation in GUTs; asymmetry generation in particle decays; baryon asymmetry and neutrino masses: Leptogenesis.
14) Cosmic ray background; natural radioactivity; background suppression in underground laboratories (Gran Sasso).
15) Combustion of hydrogen in the sun, protonproton chain and CNO cycle. Flux and spectrum of solar neutrinos.
16) Nuclear astrophysics measurements in underground laboratory, the experiment Luna at the Gran Sasso, study of the 3He combustion in the protonproton chain.
17) Measurement of 14N(p,gamma)15O underground, results and consequences. Future measures for nuclear astrophysics. Solar neutrino experiments: radiochemical and direct, results and consequences. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Blackboard lectures. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

The students will be provided with detailed notes on all the topics of the course. In a more detailed version of the program, which will be delivered to students at the beginning of the course, they will be shown paragraphs or chapters of the reference books where the discussion of the various topics of the course took more inspiration. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Bergstrom, Lars; Goobar, Ariel, Cosmology and particle astrophysics. Berlin: Springer, 2003.

Perkins, Donald H., Particle astrophysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Rubakov, Valery A., Introduction to the Theory of the Early Universe: Hot Big Bang Theory. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011.

Kolb, Edward W.; Turner, Michael S., The early universe. Redwood City: California, AddisonWesley, 1994.

Bilenky, Samoil, Introduction to the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos. Berlin: Springer, 2010.

Giunti, Carlo; Kim, Chung Wood, Fundamentals of neutrino physics and astrophysics. Oxford: Oxford University press, 2007.

Cheng, TaPei; Li, LingFong, Gauge theory of elementary particle physics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.

Schwartz, Matthew Dean, Quantum field theory and the standard modelMatthew D. Schwartz. Cambridge: Cambridge univ. press, 2014.

Peskin, Michael E.; Schroeder, Daniel V., An introduction to quantum field theory. Reading: Mass., AddisonWesley, 1995.

Bjorken, James D.; Drell, Sidney D., Relativistic quantum mechanics. New York: McGrawHill, 1964.


