First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
NATURAL SCIENCE
Course unit
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
SCP3053437, A.A. 2015/16

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2013/14

Information on the course unit
Degree course First cycle degree in
NATURAL SCIENCE
SC1161, Degree course structure A.Y. 2008/09, A.Y. 2015/16
N0
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 9.0
Type of assessment Mark
Course unit English denomination GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
Website of the academic structure http://scienzenaturali.scienze.unipd.it/2015/laurea
Department of reference Department of Biology
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Branch PADOVA
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Lecturers
Teacher in charge LAURA TALLANDINI

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Core courses BIO/09 Physiology 9.0

Course unit organization
Period First semester
Year 3rd Year
Teaching method frontal

Type of hours Credits Teaching
hours
Hours of
Individual study
Shifts
Laboratory 1.0 16 9.0 No turn
Lecture 8.0 64 136.0 No turn

Calendar
Start of activities 01/10/2015
End of activities 28/01/2016
Show course schedule 2019/20 Reg.2008 course timetable

Examination board
Board From To Members of the board
8 FISIOLOGIA GENERALE 2019-2020 01/10/2019 27/11/2020 IRATO PAOLA (Presidente)
SANTOVITO GIANFRANCO (Membro Effettivo)
BISAGLIA MARCO (Supplente)
7 FISIOLOGIA GENERALE agosto 2019 01/08/2019 30/11/2019 IRATO PAOLA (Presidente)
SANTOVITO GIANFRANCO (Membro Effettivo)
BISAGLIA MARCO (Supplente)
6 FISIOLOGIA GENERALE 01/10/2018 31/07/2019 BELTRAMINI MARIANO (Presidente)
IRATO PAOLA (Membro Effettivo)
BISAGLIA MARCO (Supplente)
5 FISIOLOGIA GENERALE 2017/2018 01/10/2017 25/11/2018 BELTRAMINI MARIANO (Presidente)
IRATO PAOLA (Membro Effettivo)
BISAGLIA MARCO (Supplente)
4 FISIOLOGIA GENERALE 2016-2017 01/10/2016 30/11/2017 BELTRAMINI MARIANO (Presidente)
IRATO PAOLA (Membro Effettivo)
GREGGIO ELISA (Supplente)
3 fisiologia generale 2015-2016 01/10/2015 30/11/2016 TALLANDINI LAURA (Presidente)
IRATO PAOLA (Membro Effettivo)
SANTOVITO GIANFRANCO (Supplente)

Syllabus
Prerequisites: Knowledge of programs of Physics , Chemistry , Biochemistry
Knowledge of fundamentals of General Biology , with particular regard to cell and subcellular component structure and function

Basic knowledge of morphological, histological and organizational plans of Metazoans
Target skills and knowledge: Knowledge and skills to be acquired:

- connecting the structural and ultrastructural aspects of biological systems with functions
- understanding the molecular mechanisms at the basis of cell functions , and consequently of tissues, organs and apparatus.
- knowledge of communication pathways, chemical and electrical , between cells , organs and systems.
- knowledge of homeostatic processes , namely the management of the internal environment, at various levels of complexity.
- knowledge of advantages from the evolution of physiological systems and fitness rating from specific adaptations in relation to the different habitat
- knowledge of the main metabolic demands and pathways

An essential condition for passing the final profit is to have reached sufficient knowledge of:
- the basic mechanisms that allow the life of organisms , from cells to complex organisms
- the structure and functions of the apparatus and organs presented and reported in the program
Examination methods: Mode of examination

The examination is usually conducted in written form , and consists of two parts corresponding to the two parts of the course program. Therefore the Ist part covers the basic mechanisms, the IInd part concerns the apparatus of vegetative life ,and finally the sensory physiology. Each part consist of 10 open questions.
Depending on agreements done with the students along the course, it is possible that the examination is done in oral form

One credit of the course takes place in the form of laboratory , with six separate exercises and a written report for each exercise . The average rating of the lab. reports contribute to the final evaluation of the course
Assessment criteria: Evaluation criteria

An essential condition for passing the final profit is to have reached sufficient knowledge of:
- the basic mechanisms that allow the life of organisms , from cells to complex organisms
- the structure and functions of the apparatus and organs presented and reported in the program
Course unit contents: Contents

Ist Part
The organisms are open systems in a quasi-steady state . The maintenance of a constant internal environment known as homeostasis needs the presence of feedback regulatory mechanisms
Important Biological Compounds ( revision): Water, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Amino-acids, Proteins
A complex protein machine : the striated skeletal muscle: structure, unltrastructure and functions

Biological Membranes and material transports:

Membrane structure and Models; Passive and Active transports; Water transport , the Curran model.
Membrane potential: Equilibrium potential- the Nernst Equation; The Gibbs Donnan Equilibrium;
The diffusion Potential – The GHK equation.
Excitable cells: Resting and action potential. The physical basis of neurons excitation. Action potentials versus local potentials.
Neurons: structural and functional classification. The Reflex arc. The glial cells.

IInd Part
The homeostatic regulation of the internal environment
The respiratory systems: respiratory pigments and O2 transport, the CO-Hb equilibrium and danger.
Blood and CO2 transport, Bohr and Root effects;
Evolutive trends in respiratory surfaces and gas exchanges: From gills to lungs;
How lungs exchange O2 and CO2.The respiratory surface control in human lung.
Regulation of gas exchanges and ventilation control. The brainstem respiratory centers

Circulatory systems: components and organization;
Open and closed circulatory systems.
From contractile vessels to hearts.
The hearts of Vertebrates, electrical activity of the hearts and mechanic events, heart components: pacemaker centers, conducting system and contractile tissue; heart rate regulation;
The big blood vessels, Arteries, Veins, Endothelial Capillaries; The microcirculation: Capillary structure and function - Circulatory exchanges; Hemodynamics;
Blood components; Blood coagulation.
Regulation of the internal environment: ionic and osmotic equilibrium in Invertebrates and Vertebrates.
Aquatic (marine and freshwater ) and terrestrial organisms. The kidney and its functional unit : the nephron; Ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion process es; Extrarenal osmoregulatory organs in Vertebrates.
Nutrition: Evolution and adaptation of the digestive systems;
The human digestive system components: structure and function; Exocrine and endocrine secretions in the gastrointestinal tract; Regulation of enzyme and hormone secretions; Nutrients: carbohydrate, lipids and protein digestion and absorption. Calorimetry and metabolism

Cell chemical communication and control systems.
Membrane and intracellular receptors. Endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. Chemical classes, general functions and mechanisms of action and regulation of hormones;
The vertebrate endocrine system: the role of the Hypothalamus. The Hypophysis: Adenohypophysis, Pars Intermedia and Neurohypophysis structure, hormones and regulation; Thyroid and Parathyroid glands: structure, hormones and regulation, Adrenal Glands: structure, hormones and regulation; Sexual hormones.
The neural network evolution; The Vertebrate Nervous System: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System. Brain, Learning and Memory.
Sensory Physiology: Sensory receptors: properties and functional types: Stimulation, Transduction, Conduction and Perception.
Somatesthetic Senses: Touch and Pressure, Heat and Cold, Limb movements, Pain ; Special Senses: Smell, Taste, Hearing, Equilibrium, Vision
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Learning Activities and planned Teaching Methods
The course of General Physiology provides 64 hours of lectures , and 16 of practical exercises, for a total of 80 hours(9 credits).
During the course , on the basis of student requests additional extracurricular hours can be dedicated to tutorial / review lesson activities.

The course aims to present the basic mechanisms that guarantee the functions of the living organisms and the organization of such mechanisms in complex functions through the activity and regulation of organs and systems ; Molecular and structural adaptations that allow survival in various natural environments are highlighted.

The practical exercises develop methods of measurement of some important biochemical and physiological parameters and processes .
Additional notes about suggested reading: For each topic the extended program has precise references on the chapters of the texts adopted and / or recommended for the study

Any indications of study materials: Teaching materials such as the slides utilized for the frontal lessons are on line as well as on CD – Rom; other online illustrative materials of the main features covered are indicated. Additionally the program indicates , in a very precise way , the chapters of the textbook useful for each presented topic
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • • Randall, Bruggen and French,, Fisiologia Animale: meccanismi e adattamenti.. --: Zanichelli, 1999., --. Cerca nel catalogo
  • Silverthorn, D.U., Testo i, FISIOLOGIA Un approccio integrato (3°ed). --:. --: Ambrosiana Editore, 2007., --. Testo integrativo e semplificato orientato soprattutto alla fisiologia umana Cerca nel catalogo
  • Taglietti, Vanni e Casella, Cesare, Principi di Fisiologia. e Biofis. della cellula; Vol II: Scambi tra Cellula e Ambiente_ CapIV e Vpag1-80 e Appendice Pag.139-144. Pavia: La Goliardica Pavese, 2009. Consigliato per la chiarezza e semplicità delle spiegazioni sui trasporti e i potenziali di membrana Cerca nel catalogo
  • Taglietti, Vanni e Casella, Cesare, Principi di Fisiologia. e Biofis. della cellula; Vol III: La Comunicazione tra cellule_ CapVII pag45-71, 104-109; 113-127. Pavia: La Goliardica Pavese, 2009. Consigliato per la chiarezza e semplicità delle spiegazioni su Sinapsi, potenziali locali, riflessi, memoria Cerca nel catalogo
  • Randall, Bruggen and French:, Eckert Animal Physiology Hardcover –. --: --, 2001. For the English version of the Course Cerca nel catalogo
  • Lauralee Sherwood Hillar Klandorf Paul Yancey : Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms, 2nd Edit, Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms. --: 2nd Edition-, 2013. For the English version of the Course Cerca nel catalogo
  • Taglietti, Vanni e Casella, Cesare, Principi di Fisiologia. e Biofis. della cellula;, Principi di Fisiologia. e Biofis. della cellula; Vol II: Scambi tra Cellula e Ambiente_ CapIV e Vpag1-80 e Appendice Pag.139-144.. Pavia:: La Goliardica Pavese,, 2009. Very clear presentation of membrane potential equations (Nernst- Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium- Goldman Equation for Diffusion Potential ) Cerca nel catalogo