Second cycle degree in PHYSICS

Campus: PADOVA

Language: English

Teaching period: Second Semester


Number of ECTS credits allocated: 6

Prerequisites: The course is self-contained as the necessary basics of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and general relativity will be provided during the course.
Examination methods: Oral exam.
Course unit contents: 1) INTRODUCTION: the observable Universe and its expansion, Dark Matter, the left-overs from the Big Bang.
2) RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS: Dirac and Klein-Gordon Equations; nonrelativistic correspondence; antiparticles and their properties; discrete symmetries: P, T, and C and the CPT theorem.
3) QUANTUM FIELD THEORY: the Klein-Gordon, electromagnetic and Dirac fields; spin-statistics connection;
Noether's theorem; the energy-momenta tensor; radiation-matter interaction: covariant derivative and QED; scattering theory: S-matrix, Green functions, propagators, Feynman rules, cross-sections and decay rates.
4) SPONTANEOUS SYMMETRY BREAKING (SSB): SSB of discrete and continuous global symmetries; Goldstone theorem; SSB of continuous local symmetries: the Higgs mechanism; SSB at finite temperature.
5) THE STANDARD MODEL (SM) OF PARTICLE PHYSICS: Fermi theory; (V-A) x (V-A) theory; Yang-Mills theory; the standard electroweak theory; SSB of the electroweak symmetry; mass spectrum and particle interactions; CKM matrix; GIM mechanism; CP violation; flavor group of the SM: baryon and lepton (family) number conservation; the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC.
6) NEUTRINO PHYSICS: Dirac and Majorana masses; see-saw mechanism; massive neutrinos in the SM; PMNS matrix; GIM mechanism and the mu->e gamma decay rate; neutrinoless double beta-decay; neutrino oscillation in the vacuum and matter: the MSW effect; solar and atmospheric neutrinos; CP violation in neutrino physics; neutrino oscillation experiments; neutrinos from Supernovae.
7) BEYOND THE SM: Grand Unified Theories (GUTs); SU(5) model: SSB and Gauge hierarchy, coupling constant unification, proton decay, fermion masses and mixing angles; SO(10) and the see-saw mechanism.
8) GENERAL RELATIVITY: the Equivalence Principle; curved space-time, the energy-momentum tensor; Einstein's equations of Gravitation, the Schwarzschild solution.
9) COSMOLOGICAL MODELS: the de Sitter model; the Standard Model of Cosmology, FLRW metric, Friedmann equations; the Cosmological Constant.
10) THERMODYNAMICS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: equilibrium thermodynamics; entropy; decoupling temperatures.
11) DARK MATTER (DM): experimental evidences; freeze-out and DM; the Boltzmann equation; cold, hot and warm DM; Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs); DM Candidates in Particle Physics; cosmological bounds on neutrino masses; direct and inderect searches of DM.
12) INFLATION: problems of the Standard Big Bang model, the horizon problem, the flatness problem, the monopole problem; the Inflation mechanism; quantum fluctuations of the Inflaton; models for Inflation; Dark Energy.
13) BARYOGENESIS: Sakharov conditions; baryon (B) and lepton (L) numbers violation in particle interactions; B and L violation in the SM via anomalies; B--L conservation in the SM; electroweak mechanism; B violation in GUTs; asymmetry generation in particle decays; baryon asymmetry and neutrino masses: Leptogenesis.