Campus: PADOVA

Language: English

Teaching period: First Semester


Number of ECTS credits allocated: 10

Prerequisites: Diagnostic microbiology

Basic microbiology: general properties of bacteria, viruses, mycetes, protozoa; basic concepts in immunology and molecular biology.

Molecular Immunology

Principles of Immunology
Examination methods: Diagnostic microbiology

The final exam consists of a written exam with questions that require short answers
The teacher will propose during the course different practical and theoretical activities that will contribute to the final grade .

Molecular Immunology

The final exam consists of multiple choice questions, or, in selected cases, oral exam.
Course unit contents: Diagnostic microbiology

Microbiology and pharmaceuticals
GMP and regulations
Laboratory management and design
Microbiological culture media
Microbiology laboratory techniques
Bioburden determination
Specified and objectionable microorganisms
Microbial identification
Assessment of pharmaceutical water systems
Endotoxin and pyrogen testing
Sterilization and sterility assurance
Biological indicators: Measuring sterilization
Antibiotics and preservatives
Cleaning and disinfection
Cleanrooms and environmental monitoring
Rapid microbiological methods
Risk assessment
Manufacturing and validation
Microbiological data
Auditing the microbiology laboratory
Microbiological challenges to the pharmaceuticals and healthcare
Mycetes: general concepts and diagnostic methods
Viruses: Diagnostic methods

Molecular Immunology

Characteristics of the immune system. Innate and adaptive immunity. Identification of the pathogen by the cells of the innate system: PAMP and PRR. Toll-like receptors. Origin of the cells of the immune system. Recruitment of the leukocytes to the infection site. Natural killer cells and their role in the immune system.
Major histocompatibility complex: gene organization, protein structure and biological function. HLA typing.
Antibody structure. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, generation of monoclonal antibody and their use in the lab and in the clinic. Evolution of monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibodies as drugs. B cell activation and antibody production: signal transduction and functional responses.
The innate response to viral infections.
Immunological tolerance: T Cell Development, Repertoire Selection and Immune Self Tolerance.
Transplantation immunology, Types of tranplant. Immune responses to allografts. Recognition of antigens, activation of alloreactive lymphocytes. Patterns and mechanisms of allograft rejection. Immunosuppressive drugs.
Maturation of T lymphocytes and signals for T cell activation. Balancing T cell activation and control. Functional responses of T lymphocytes: Th1, Th2, Th17. Decline of T cell responses.
Immunity to tumors. Immune responses to tumors. Tumor antigens. Evasion of immune responses by tumors. Immunotherapy for tumors. Recent advances in the immunotherapy of cancer.
Flow cytometry: principles and application in immunology