
Course unit
THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE
SCP7081677, A.A. 2017/18
Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2017/18
ECTS: details
Type 
ScientificDisciplinary Sector 
Credits allocated 
Other 
 
 
1.0 
Core courses 
FIS/05 
Astronomy and Astrophysics 
5.0 
Mode of delivery (when and how)
Period 
First semester 
Year 
1st Year 
Teaching method 
frontal 
Organisation of didactics
Type of hours 
Credits 
Hours of teaching 
Hours of Individual study 
Shifts 
Lecture 
6.0 
48 
102.0 
No turn 
Start of activities 
02/10/2017 
End of activities 
19/01/2018 
Prerequisites:

Fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and special relativity 
Target skills and knowledge:

The ability to deal with a class of physical and astronomical phenomena whose interpretation requires an approach based on largely interdisciplinary tools.
Te ability to pass from the abstract formulation of a set of physical principles and mathematical tools  acquired from teh bachelor courses  to their implementation in a different context w.r.t. that of funddamental courses of the bachelor degree. 
Examination methods:

Oral interview. 
Assessment criteria:

The oral interview is aimed at testing the ability of the student to elaborate on the various subjects covered by the course, starting from a few basic principles. 
Course unit contents:

Basic concepts of Cosmology
* Main components of teh Universe. Observational evidence for the existsnce of dark amtter and dark energy.
* Expanding Universe and Cosmological Principle.
* RobertsonWalker lineelement.
* Hubble constant and deceleration parameter.
* Distances in Cosmology; redshift and Hubble law.
* Newtonian derivation of Friedmann equations (dust case)
* Friedmann models.
* Cosmological constant: Einstein's static solution and de Sitter solution.
* Cosmological solutions for the spatially flat case. Universe models with nonzero spatial curvature.
Thermal history and early Universe.
* Number density, energy density and pressure of a system of particles in thermodynamical equilibrium.
* Entropy conservation in a comoving volume.
* Timetemperature relation in the Early Universe.
* Shortcomings of the standard cosmological model: horizon, flatness problems, etc.
* Inflation in the Early Universe: solution of the horizon and flatness problems.
* Baryon asymmetry in the Universe (basic account)
* Hydrogen recombination: Saha equation. Matterradiation decoupling. Cosmic Microwave background.
* General definition of decoupling.
Dark matter: general properties
* Boltzmann equation in Cosmology and cosmic relics.
* Hot and Cold Dark matter: definition, present abundance and general cosmological properties.
Elements of stellar astrophysics.
* Primordial nucleosynthesis of light elements.
* Gravitational contraction and conditions for hydrostatic equilibrium.
* Adiabatic index and equilibrium.
* Conditions for gravitational collapse.
* Jeans theory of gravitational instability.
* Linear evolution of perturbations in the expanding Universe (basic principles)
* Spherical collapse of a cosmic protostructure.
* Massfunction of cosmic structures: PressSchechter theory.
* Contraction of a protostar.
* Star formation and degenerate electron gas.
* The Sun: general properties, radiative diffusion, thermonuclear fusion.
* Stellar nucleosynthesis.
* Stellar cycles.
* Basic of stellar structure. Minimum and maximum mass for a star.
* Endpoints of stellar evolution: white dwarfs, neutrron stars, black holes.
* HertzsprungRussell diagram. 
Planned learning activities and teaching methods:

Classrooms. 
Additional notes about suggested reading:

Besides the relevant chapters of the indicated textbooks (which will be further specified during the classes), professor's notes on many subjects covered during the course will be provided as online material. 
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings) 

Coles, P. and Lucchin, F., Cosmology, The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure. Chichester: Wiley and Sons., 2002. Testo di riferimento per la parte di cosmologia.

Phillips, A.C., The Physics of Stars. Chichester: Wiley and Sons., 1994. Testo di riferimento per la parte di astrofisica stellare

Kolb, E.W. and Turner, M.S., The Early Universe. Redwood City,: AddisonWesley, 1990. Testo consigliato per alcuni argomenti specifici


