First cycle
degree courses
Second cycle
degree courses
Single cycle
degree courses
School of Science
Course unit
SCL1001078, A.A. 2017/18

Information concerning the students who enrolled in A.Y. 2016/17

Information on the course unit
Degree course Second cycle degree in
IF0360, Degree course structure A.Y. 2013/14, A.Y. 2017/18
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Number of ECTS credits allocated 6.0
Type of assessment Mark
Website of the academic structure
Department of reference Department of Biology
Mandatory attendance
Language of instruction Italian
Single Course unit The Course unit can be attended under the option Single Course unit attendance
Optional Course unit The Course unit can be chosen as Optional Course unit

Teacher in charge CARLOTTA MAZZOLDI BIO/06
Other lecturers PAOLA TELLAROLI MED/01

ECTS: details
Type Scientific-Disciplinary Sector Credits allocated
Educational activities in elective or integrative disciplines BIO/07 Ecology 2.0
Other -- -- 1.0
Core courses SECS-S/02 Statistics for Experimental and Technological Research 3.0

Mode of delivery (when and how)
Period First semester
Year 2nd Year
Teaching method frontal

Organisation of didactics
Type of hours Credits Hours of
Hours of
Individual study
Laboratory 2.0 32 18.0 No turn
Lecture 4.0 32 68.0 No turn

Start of activities 02/10/2017
End of activities 19/01/2018

Prerequisites: No prerequisites are required to attend the course
Target skills and knowledge: The first part of the course aims at giving to the students the instruments to develop a sampling design, its implementation in relation to the type of habitat, study organism or community. The relationships between aims of the sampling and life cycle of organisms and/or habitat characteristics. This part of the course will introduce the organization of correlative and manipulative experiments, the difference between accuracy and precision and how to control sample variance and reduce biases. The course will present some sampling techniques and instruments suitable for different marine habitats and their technical characteristics are analysed in relation to the aims of the study, highlighting limits and possible biases. The students will be also involved in data collection in the field (underwater or on the land).
The second part of the course aims to give the basic knowledge on the statistical analyses applied to the researches in ecology, biology and environment. The students will learn how to choose the statistical techniques more suitable to the aims of the research and how to apply the analyses using statistical software. Moreover, the students will learn the description, interpretation and discussion of the results.
Examination methods: The evaluation includes a written exams with open questions on the topics presented during the course, and a practical exam in informatics lab for the second part of the course. For the first part of the course, an oral presentation of single students (or group of students) on case studies will be evaluated.
Assessment criteria: Examination of the comprehension of the proposed topics and their application for a correct sampling planning. Examination of the comprehension and application of statistical techniques with the use of statistical software.
Course unit contents: First part: scientific method; type of problem; how to develop a sampling design; preliminary sampling; scale of variation of phenomena; precision, accuracy and bias; sample size; concept of minimal area and volume; concept of replicate and pseudoreplicate; type of sampling: random, systematic, stratified; allocation of sampling effort: simple, proportional optimal. Sampling methods and techniques used in different habitats; direct sampling and remote sensing: water column, bottom; monitoring and BACI; examples of manipulative experiments: factorial, nested. Discussion of case studies. Sampling in the field.
Second part: univariate and multivariate methods to evaluate association among biotic and abiotic variables, their relationships and presence of structures with gradients in experimental data. Specifically: inferential methods; multiple regression; principal component analysis and multi dimensional scaling.
Planned learning activities and teaching methods: Lectures, practical activities in the field, laboratory and informatics lab, seminars.
Additional notes about suggested reading: PDF files of the power point presentations will be made available in the MOodle platform; articles and books will be indicated.
Textbooks (and optional supplementary readings)
  • Whitlock M.C.& Schluter D., Analisi statistica dei dati biologici.. Bologna: Zanichelli, 2010. Cerca nel catalogo