
THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE
Second cycle degree in PHYSICS
Campus:
PADOVA
Language:
English
Teaching period:
First Semester
Lecturer:
SABINO MATARRESE
Number of ECTS credits allocated:
6
Prerequisites:

Fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and special relativity 
Examination methods:

Oral interview. 
Course unit contents:

Basic concepts of Cosmology
* Main components of teh Universe. Observational evidence for the existsnce of dark amtter and dark energy.
* Expanding Universe and Cosmological Principle.
* RobertsonWalker lineelement.
* Hubble constant and deceleration parameter.
* Distances in Cosmology; redshift and Hubble law.
* Newtonian derivation of Friedmann equations (dust case)
* Friedmann models.
* Cosmological constant: Einstein's static solution and de Sitter solution.
* Cosmological solutions for the spatially flat case. Universe models with nonzero spatial curvature.
Thermal history and early Universe.
* Number density, energy density and pressure of a system of particles in thermodynamical equilibrium.
* Entropy conservation in a comoving volume.
* Timetemperature relation in the Early Universe.
* Shortcomings of the standard cosmological model: horizon, flatness problems, etc.
* Inflation in the Early Universe: solution of the horizon and flatness problems.
* Baryon asymmetry in the Universe (basic account)
* Hydrogen recombination: Saha equation. Matterradiation decoupling. Cosmic Microwave background.
* General definition of decoupling.
Dark matter: general properties
* Boltzmann equation in Cosmology and cosmic relics.
* Hot and Cold Dark matter: definition, present abundance and general cosmological properties.
Elements of stellar astrophysics.
* Primordial nucleosynthesis of light elements.
* Gravitational contraction and conditions for hydrostatic equilibrium.
* Adiabatic index and equilibrium.
* Conditions for gravitational collapse.
* Jeans theory of gravitational instability.
* Linear evolution of perturbations in the expanding Universe (basic principles)
* Spherical collapse of a cosmic protostructure.
* Massfunction of cosmic structures: PressSchechter theory.
* Contraction of a protostar.
* Star formation and degenerate electron gas.
* The Sun: general properties, radiative diffusion, thermonuclear fusion.
* Stellar nucleosynthesis.
* Stellar cycles.
* Basic of stellar structure. Minimum and maximum mass for a star.
* Endpoints of stellar evolution: white dwarfs, neutrron stars, black holes.
* HertzsprungRussell diagram. 

