INTRODUCTION TO RADIATION DETECTORS

Second cycle degree in PHYSICS

Campus: PADOVA

Language: English

Teaching period: Second Semester

Lecturer: ROBERTO STROILI

Number of ECTS credits allocated: 6


Syllabus
Prerequisites: Knowledge of electromagnetic phenomena, electromagnetic waves included.
Basic notions about special relativity and quantum mechanics.
Examination methods: Oral.
Course unit contents: A. Description of the considered physical phenomena: introduction on the quantities measured in nuclear, high energy physics and astroparticle physics experiments. Charged particles energy loss. Bethe-Block formula, discussion and application to the particle detectors. Particle identification.
Multiple Coulomb scattering. Bremsstrahlung,radiation length, radiation spectrum.
Photon-matter interaction, absorption coefficient, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, pair production.
Cerenkov radiation. Mention of transition radiation. Nuclear interactions.
Scintillation in inorganic and organica materials. Energy loss in gases, diffusion, electric field effect, drift velocity, magnetic field effect. Energy loss in semiconductors.

B. Detector requirements based on the described effects: scintillation counters, Cerenkov counters, ionizing energy counters. Multiwire proportional chambers, drift chambers and TPC's. Limited streamer tubes, RPC's. Semiconductor detectors. Some mentions on trigger and readout electronics. Energy and momentum measurements. General structure of current particle detectors.

C. The particle accelerators. Electrostatic accelerators. Linear accelerators. The cyclotron. The syncrotron: transverse stability, weak focusing, betatron oscillations, transport matrices, strong focusing, quadrupoles and split roles. Hints on emittance, phase stability, syncrotron oscillations, phase diagrams, packet structure. Hints on syncrotron radiation. Storage rings: luminosity, antiproton storage, stocastic cooling.