RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR MEASUREMENTS

Second cycle degree in FISICA (discontinued)

Campus: PADOVA

Language: English

Teaching period: First Semester

Lecturer: MARCO MAZZOCCO

Number of ECTS credits allocated: 6


Syllabus
Prerequisites: The student must have attended the courses of "Introduction of Nuclear Physics" and "Nuclear Physics"
Examination methods: Oral examination. The student will be asked some questions concerning the different topics presented during the lectures. It is also foreseen a detailed analysis of one of the arguments by the student.
Course unit contents: Radioactive decays. Summaries of the interaction of charged and neutral particles with matter in the energy range of nuclear physics and detection techniques.
Low energy nuclear energy: Ion accelerators: ion source, beam transport, magnetic analysis. Magnetic spectrometers, neutron detectors, charged particles and gamma radiation.
Dynamics of heavy ion reactions: the different types of nuclear reactions from elastic diffusion to complete fusion. Identification Techniques of Reaction Products, Detector Telescopes. Measurements of cross-section at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Angular distributions and excitation functions.
Gamma spectroscopy: energy calibration of gamma spectra, efficiency evaluation, activity computation. Angular distribution, multipolarity and polarization. Angular correlation and nuclear state description with statistical tensor. Average lifetime of excited states: electronic method, plunger, DSAM, Mossbauer.
Radioactive Beams: Production Methods "ISOL" and "IN-FLIGHT": Reactions with Secondary ISOL Beams: Coulombian excitation, nucleon transfer. Reactions with relativistic secondary beams: Coulombian and inelastic excitation, knock-out, charge exchange. Beta Decay: Measurements with Isol and In-flight beams, Total absorption spectrometry. Beta-delayed neutron emission.
Nuclear astrophysics: Exploring the nuclear reactions in the stars and the synthesis of elements, Gamow peak, S-factor. Deriving the thermonuclear reaction rate. Dependence on the temperature of the nuclear reaction rate. Combustion cycles: Combustion of hydrogen through the p-p chain and the CNO cycle. Helium combustion with 3-alpha and alpha + C reactions. Advanced nuclear combustion reactions. Relevant cross section measurements: direct underground measurements, indirect Trojan-horse measures, etc.
Low radioactivity techniques: The problem of environmental radioactivity, a good shielding material, a screening of shielding materials (lead, iron, OFHC copper, mercury). The Rn as contaminant in low radioactivity measures. Intrinsic Detector Radioactivity. Effects of cosmic radiation.
Applications: Date with radionuclides. Radionuclides in nuclear medicine. The melting of light nuclei for energy production. About nuclear reactors. Mass spectrometry with accelerators for trace analysis. Non destructive analysis with neutron activation.