
NEARSHORE HYDRODYNAMICS AND COASTAL PROTECTION
Prerequisites:

None. 
Examination methods:

The evaluation will be based on the basis of:
 numerical exercises (a collection of exercises must be presented by each group, formed by 34 persons)
 short experimental exercise
 oral discussion on theoretical arguments (a list of questions will be available) 
Course unit contents:

WAVE THEORY: elementary theory of waves, the dispersion relation, diffraction, refraction, shoaling, wave breaking process, radiation stress, wave setup, Piling up. Longitudinal coastal currents (longshore), cross (rip) and return (undertow) currents. Distribution of the longshore currents induced by wave breaking. Sea level rise. Astronomical tide. Storm surge. Subsidence.
SEDIMENT TRANSPORT Average wave climate concept. Sediment transport mechanisms, depth of closure. Equilibrium profile. Dean profile. Longitudinal and crossshore transport (Larson & Kraus). CERC formula, Equation of the shore line (diffusion model). Distribution of the longshore sediment transport, Bijker formula. Sediment balance. Elements of coastal morphology. The beaches: the size of the sediment. Physiographic unit.
COASTAL PROTECTION Selection of the design wave. Return period, probability distribution and cumulative frequency. Frequency factor. Materials, mechanical properties. Beach nourishment. Techniques, fill factor concept. Initial volumes and reintegration. Longterm effectiveness of the nourishments. Dunes. Detached breakwaters, emerged and submerged, innovative works, geotextiles, bypass systems of the sands. Dredging near shore and offshore, Flooding risk. Global Change: sea level rise and coastal erosion, coastal flooding and risk assessment.
TECHNOLOGIES: pontoons, boats, tugs. Hydraulic excavators, mechanical, buckets for excavations in water. Geotextiles, laying methods. Analysis of the costs and timings. Planning areas. Impact assessment of the work, the authorization process.
PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELING Models for wave propagation, circulation, morphological, morphodynamic models. One line, 2D, 3D models. Froude scale, theory of wave generation, laboratory instruments, calibration procedures.
WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS Seminar by: Prof. P. Frigaard, Aalborg University (DK), director of the Civil Engineering Department, which assesses possible interest to carry out one/two thesis in Aalborg.
EXERCICES:
LABORATORY Exercises: 1) Calibration of wave gauges; 2) Generation of a regular wave 3) Generation of an irregular wave 4) Data acquisition 5) Optional: Perform a simple experiment (based on availability of the laboratory)
MATLAB OR OCTAVE EXERCISES 1) Introduction; Operations between vectors; Functions; Charts; Solution dispersion relation of the waves, if/for cycles, load data from laboratory 2) Design of a nourishment, analysis of wave climate; 3) Design of nourishment, 4) design of groin system (assessment annual longitudinal transport distribution) 5) Analysis of Laboratory data: Identification of incident and reflected waves, Evaluation of transmission coefficient, of loads. 

